Velg data du ønsker med i utskriften
Tittel Versjon Status
IS-nr ISBN
Revisjonsdato Publiseringsdato
Utgiver(e) Redaktør Publikasjonstype
  • Norsk tittel - Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfølging av spiserørskreft
  • Engelsk tittel -
  • Versjon - 4
  • Status - Publisert
  • IS-nr - 2413
  • ISBN - 978-82-8081-416-6
  • DOI -
  • Revisjonsdato - 25.11.2015
  • Neste revisjon -
  • Publikasjonsdato - 01.12.2007
  • Utløpsdato -
  • Utgiver(e) - Helsedirektoratet
  • Redaktør - Professor Asgaut Viste
  • Publikasjonstype - Nasjonale retningslinjer
Vedlegg
 
  1. Cancer in Norway 2013: cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway. Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway; 2015. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.kreftregisteret.no/no/Generelt/Publikasjoner/Cancer-in-Norway/Cancer-in-Norway-2013/
  2. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in the aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer 2000;85(3):340-6.
  3. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 1999;340(11):825-31.
  4. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Nyren O. Association between body mass and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(11):883-90.
  5. de Jonge PJ, van Blankenstein M, Grady WM, Kuipers EJ. Barrett's oesophagus: epidemiology, cancer risk and implications for management. Gut 2014;63(1):191-202.
  6. Sikkema M, de Jonge PJ, Steyerberg EW, Kuipers EJ. Risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and mortality in patients with Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010;8(3):235-44; quiz e32.
  7. Chandrasoma P, Wickramasinghe K, Ma Y, DeMeester T. Is intestinal metaplasia a necessary precursor lesion for adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia? Dis Esophagus 2007;20(1):36-41.
  8. Wu AH, Wan P, Bernstein L. A multiethnic population-based study of smoking, alcohol and body size and risk of adenocarcinomas of the stomach and esophagus (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12(8):721-32.
  9. Islami F, Kamangar F. Helicobacter pylori and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Prev Res 2008;1(5):329-38.
  10. Zhang Y. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2013;19(34):5598-606.
  11. Hulscher JB, van Lanschot JJ. Individualised surgical treatment of patients with an adenocarcinoma of the distal oesophagus or gastro-oesophageal junction. Dig Surg 2005;22(3):130-4.
  12. Hulscher JB, van Sandick JW, de Boer AG, Wijnhoven BP, Tijssen JG, Fockens P, et al. Extended transthoracic resection compared with limited transhiatal resection for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 2002;347(21):1662-9.
  13. Omloo JM, Lagarde SM, Hulscher JB, Reitsma JB, Fockens P, van Dekken H, et al. Extended transthoracic resection compared with limited transhiatal resection for adenocarcinoma of the mid/distal esophagus: five-year survival of a randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 2007;246(6):992-1000.
  14. van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ, Steyerberg EW, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BP, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366(22):2074-84.
  15. Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A, red. AJCC cancer staging manual. 7. utg. New York: Springer; 2010.
  16. Lagergren J. Etiology and risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma: possibilities for chemoprophylaxis? Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006;20(5):803-12.
  17. Navarro Silvera SA, Mayne ST, Risch H, Gammon MD, Vaughan TL, Chow WH, et al. Food group intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. Int J Cancer 2008;123(4):852-60.
  18. Terry P, Lagergren J, Ye W, Nyren O, Wolk A. Antioxidants and cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer 2000;87(5):750-4.
  19. Islami F, Fedirko V, Tramacere I, Bagnardi V, Jenab M, Scotti L, et al. Alcohol drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with focus on light-drinkers and never-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2011;129(10):2473-84.
  20. Wyss A, Hashibe M, Chuang SC, Lee YC, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, et al. Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Am J Epidemiol 2013;178(5):679-90.
  21. Lee YC, Marron M, Benhamou S, Bouchardy C, Ahrens W, Pohlabeln H, et al. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(12):3353-61.
  22. Pandeya N, Webb PM, Sadeghi S, Green AC, Whiteman DC. Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms and the risks of oesophageal cancer: are the effects modified by smoking, NSAIDs or acid suppressants? Gut 2010;59(1):31-8.
  23. Keszei AP, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Red and processed meat consumption and the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Ann Oncol 2012;23(9):2319-26.
  24. Islami F, Boffetta P, Ren JS, Pedoeim L, Khatib D, Kamangar F. High-temperature beverages and foods and esophageal cancer risk--a systematic review. Int J Cancer 2009;125(3):491-524.
  25. Powell N, Boyde A, Tristram A, Hibbitts S, Fiander A. The potential impact of human papillomavirus vaccination in contemporary cytologically screened populations may be underestimated: an observational retrospective analysis of invasive cervical cancers. Int J Cancer 2009;125(10):2425-7.
  26. Far AE, Aghakhani A, Hamkar R, Ramezani A, Pishbigar HF, Mirmomen S, et al. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian patients. Scand J Infect Dis 2007;39(1):58-62.
  27. Rubenstein JH, Taylor JB. Meta-analysis: the association of oesophageal adenocarcinoma with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;32(10):1222-7.
  28. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Adami HO, Nyren O. Association between medications that relax the lower esophageal sphincter and risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Ann Intern Med 2000;133(3):165-75.
  29. Tramacere I, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Tobacco smoking and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology 2011;22(3):344-9.
  30. Cook MB, Kamangar F, Whiteman DC, Freedman ND, Gammon MD, Bernstein L, et al. Cigarette smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: a pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102(17):1344-53.
  31. Lagergren J, Ye W, Lagergren P, Lu Y. The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma after antireflux surgery. Gastroenterology 2010;138(4):1297-301.
  32. Turati F, Tramacere I, La Vecchia C, Negri E. A meta-analysis of body mass index and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Ann Oncol 2013;24(3):609-17.
  33. Rokkas T, Pistiolas D, Sechopoulos P, Robotis I, Margantinis G. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal neoplasia: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007;5(12):1413-7, 7.e1-2.
  34. Tramacere I, Pelucchi C, Bagnardi V, Rota M, Scotti L, Islami F, et al. A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma risk. Ann Oncol 2012;23(2):287-97.
  35. Liu J, Wang J, Leng Y, Lv C. Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer 2013;133(2):473-85.
  36. Sun L, Yu S. Meta-analysis: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Dis Esophagus 2011;24(8):544-9.
  37. Singh S, Singh AG, Singh PP, Murad MH, Iyer PG. Statins are associated with reduced risk of esophageal cancer, particularly in patients with Barrett's esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;11(6):620-9.
  38. Kastelein F, Spaander MC, Biermann K, Steyerberg EW, Kuipers EJ, Bruno MJ. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and statins have chemopreventative effects in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology 2011;141(6):2000-8; quiz e13-4.
  39. Allum WH, Blazeby JM, Griffin SM, Cunningham D, Jankowski JA, Wong R, et al. Guidelines for the management of oesophageal and gastric cancer. Gut 2011;60(11):1449-72.
  40. Davies AR, Deans DA, Penman I, Plevris JN, Fletcher J, Wall L, et al. The multidisciplinary team meeting improves staging accuracy and treatment selection for gastro-esophageal cancer. Dis Esophagus 2006;19(6):496-503.
  41. Halm EA, Lee C, Chassin MR. Is volume related to outcome in health care? A systematic review and methodologic critique of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2002;137(6):511-20.
  42. Killeen SD, O'Sullivan MJ, Coffey JC, Kirwan WO, Redmond HP. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures. Br J Surg 2005;92(4):389-402.
  43. Mannath J, Subramanian V, Hawkey CJ, Ragunath K. Narrow band imaging for characterization of high grade dysplasia and specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a meta-analysis. Endoscopy 2010;42(5):351-9.
  44. Watson A, Heading RC, Shepherd NA, red Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Barrett's columnar-lined oesophagus. London: British Society of Gastroenterology; 2005. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.bsg.org.uk/images/stories/docs/clinical/guidelines/oesophageal/Barretts_Oes.pdf
  45. Abela JE, Going JJ, Mackenzie JF, McKernan M, O'Mahoney S, Stuart RC. Systematic four-quadrant biopsy detects Barrett's dysplasia in more patients than nonsystematic biopsy. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103(4):850-5.
  46. Ragunath K, Krasner N, Raman VS, Haqqani MT, Cheung WY. A randomized, prospective cross-over trial comparing methylene blue-directed biopsy and conventional random biopsy for detecting intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopy 2003;35(12):998-1003.
  47. Clark GW, Ireland AP, Hagen JA, Collard JM, Peters JH, DeMeester TR. Carcinoembryonic antigen measurements in the management of esophageal cancer: an indicator of subclinical recurrence. Am J Surg 170(6):597-600.
  48. Ba-Ssalamah A, Matzek W, Baroud S, Bastati N, Zacherl J, Schoppmann S, et al. Accuracy of hydro-multidetector row CT in the local T staging of oesophageal cancer compared to postoperative histopathological results. Eur Radiol 2011;21(11):2326-35.
  49. Ulla M, Gentile EM, Cavadas D, Yeyati EL, Frank L, Argerich JI, et al. Esophageal cancer characterization with pneumo-64-MDCT. Abdom Imaging 2012;37(4):501-11.
  50. Oesophageal and gastric cancers: diagnosis and assessment. I: Improving outcomes in upper gastro-intestinal cancers: the manual. London: Department of Health; 2001. s. 37-40. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/documents/362/UpperGIGuidance.pdf
  51. van Vliet EP, Hermans JJ, De Wever W, Eijkemans MJ, Steyerberg EW, Faasse C, et al. Radiologist experience and CT examination quality determine metastasis detection in patients with esophageal or gastric cardia cancer. Eur Radiol 18(11):2475-84.
  52. van Rossum PS, van Lier AL, Lips IM, Meijer GJ, Reerink O, van Vulpen M, et al. Imaging of oesophageal cancer with FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Clin Radiol 2015;70(1):81-95.
  53. Kelly S, Harris KM, Berry E, Hutton J, Roderick P, Cullingworth J, et al. A systematic review of the staging performance of endoscopic ultrasound in gastro-oesophageal carcinoma. Gut 2001;49(4):534-9.
  54. Wilkiemeyer MB, Bieligk SC, Ashfaq R, Jones DB, Rege RV, Fleming JB. Laparoscopy alone is superior to peritoneal cytology in staging gastric and esophageal carcinoma. Surg Endosc 2004;18(5):852-6.
  55. Meyers BF, Downey RJ, Decker PA, Keenan RJ, Siegel BA, Cerfolio RJ, et al. The utility of positron emission tomography in staging of potentially operable carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus: results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0060 trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;133(3):738-45.
  56. Sobin LH, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, red. TNM Classification of malignant tumours. 7. utg. Oxford,UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
  57. Ell C, May A, Pech O, Gossner L, Guenter E, Behrens A, et al. Curative endoscopic resection of early esophageal adenocarcinomas (Barrett's cancer). Gastrointest Endosc 2007;65(1):3-10.
  58. Fujita H, Sueyoshi S, Yamana H, Shinozaki K, Toh U, Tanaka Y, et al. Optimum treatment strategy for superficial esophageal cancer: endoscopic mucosal resection versus radical esophagectomy. World J Surg 2001;25(4):424-31.
  59. Pech O, May A, Gossner L, Rabenstein T, Manner H, Huijsmans J, et al. Curative endoscopic therapy in patients with early esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Endoscopy 2007;39(1):30-5.
  60. Shaheen NJ, Sharma P, Overholt BF, Wolfsen HC, Sampliner RE, Wang KK, et al. Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia. N Engl J Med 2009;360(22):2277-88.
  61. Fitzgerald RC, di Pietro M, Ragunath K, Ang Y, Kang JY, Watson P, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines on the diagnosis and management of Barrett's oesophagus. Gut 2014;63(1):7-42.
  62. Jamieson GG, Lamb PJ, Thompson SK. The role of lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer. Ann Surg 2009;250(2):206-9.
  63. D'Journo XB, Thomas PA. Current management of esophageal cancer. J Thorac Dis 2014;6 Suppl 2:S253-64.
  64. Biere SS, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Maas KW, Bonavina L, Rosman C, Garcia JR, et al. Minimally invasive versus open oesophagectomy for patients with oesophageal cancer: a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;379(9829):1887-92.
  65. Townsend CM. Sabiston textbook of surgery: the biological basis of modern surgical practice. 19. utg. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.
  66. Tachibana M, Kinugasa S, Yoshimura H, Shibakita M, Tonomoto Y, Dhar DK, et al. Clinical outcomes of extended esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Surg 2005;189(1):98-109.
  67. Lerut T, Nafteux P, Moons J, Coosemans W, Decker G, De LP, et al. Three-field lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction in 174 R0 resections: impact on staging, disease-free survival, and outcome: a plea for adaptation of TNM classification in upper-half esophageal carcinoma. Ann Surg 2004;240(6):962-72.
  68. Nishihira T, Hirayama K, Mori S. A prospective randomized trial of extended cervical and superior mediastinal lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus. Am J Surg 1998;175(1):47-51.
  69. Kato H, Watanabe H, Tachimori Y, Iizuka T. Evaluation of neck lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 1991;51(6):931-5.
  70. Peng J, Cai J, Niu ZX, Chen LQ. Early enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition for esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy: a meta-analysis. Dis Esophagus 2015.
  71. Cheung HC, Siu KF, Wong J. Is pyloroplasty necessary in esophageal replacement by stomach? A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Surgery 1987;102(1):19-24.
  72. Gebski V, Burmeister B, Smithers BM, Foo K, Zalcberg J, Simes J. Survival benefits from neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy in oesophageal carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2007;8(3):226-34.
  73. Jin HL, Zhu H, Ling TS, Zhang HJ, Shi RH. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resectable esophageal carcinoma: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol 2009;15(47):5983-91.
  74. Sjoquist KM, Burmeister BH, Smithers BM, Zalcberg JR, Simes RJ, Barbour A, et al. Survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for resectable oesophageal carcinoma: an updated meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol 2011;12(7):681-92.
  75. Xu Y, Yu X, Chen Q, Mao W. Neoadjuvant versus adjuvant treatment: which one is better for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma? World J Surg Oncol 2012;10:173.
  76. Ancona E, Ruol A, Santi S, Merigliano S, Sileni VC, Koussis H, et al. Only pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves significantly the long term survival of patients with resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: final report of a randomized, controlled trial of preoperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone. Cancer 2001;91(11):2165-74.
  77. Arnott SJ, Duncan W, Gignoux M, Hansen HS, Launois B, Nygaard K, et al. Preoperative radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(4):CD001799.
  78. Surgical resection with or without preoperative chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359(9319):1727-33.
  79. Stockeld D, Tennvall J, Wagenius G, Albertsson M, Backman L, Brodin O, et al. A Swedish study of chemoradiation in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Acta Oncol 2001;40(5):566-73.
  80. Mariette C, Dahan L, Mornex F, Maillard E, Thomas PA, Meunier B, et al. Surgery alone versus chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for stage I and II esophageal cancer: final analysis of randomized controlled phase III trial FFCD 9901. J Clin Oncol 2014;32(23):2416-22.
  81. Malthaner RA, Collin S, Fenlon D. Preoperative chemotherapy for resectable thoracic esophageal cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(3):CD001556.
  82. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355(1):11-20.
  83. Stahl M, Stuschke M, Lehmann N, Meyer HJ, Walz MK, Seeber S, et al. Chemoradiation with and without surgery in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(10):2310-7.
  84. Herskovic A, Martz K, al-Sarraf M, Leichman L, Brindle J, Vaitkevicius V, et al. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med 1992;326(24):1593-8.
  85. Minsky BD, Pajak TF, Ginsberg RJ, Pisansky TM, Martenson J, Komaki R, et al. INT 0123 (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-05) phase III trial of combined-modality therapy for esophageal cancer: high-dose versus standard-dose radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 2002;20(5):1167-74.
  86. Welsh J, Settle SH, Amini A, Xiao L, Suzuki A, Hayashi Y, et al. Failure patterns in patients with esophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. Cancer 2012;118(10):2632-40.
  87. Zhang Z, Liao Z, Jin J, Ajani J, Chang JY, Jeter M, et al. Dose-response relationship in locoregional control for patients with stage II-III esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61(3):656-64.
  88. Radiochemotherapy With and Without Dose Escalation in Patients Presenting Locally Advanced or Inoperable Carcinoma of the Oesophagus (CONCORDE). NCT01348217. ClinicalTrials.gov [database].  [oppdatert 20. mars 2015; lest 19. november 2015]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01348217
  89. Gkika E, Gauler T, Eberhardt W, Stahl M, Stuschke M, Pottgen C. Long-term results of definitive radiochemotherapy in locally advanced cancers of the cervical esophagus. Dis Esophagus 2014;27(7):678-84.
  90. Burmeister BH, Dickie G, Smithers BM, Hodge R, Morton K. Thirty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervical esophagus treated with chemoradiation therapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;126(2):205-8.
  91. Huang SH, Lockwood G, Brierley J, Cummings B, Kim J, Wong R, et al. Effect of concurrent high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy and conformal radiotherapy on cervical esophageal cancer survival. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008;71(3):735-40.
  92. Cooper JS, Guo MD, Herskovic A, Macdonald JS, Martenson JA, Jr., al-Sarraf M, et al. Chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced esophageal cancer: long-term follow-up of a prospective randomized trial (RTOG 85-01). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. JAMA 1999;281(17):1623-7.
  93. Conroy T, Yataghene Y, Etienne PL, Michel P, Senellart H, Raoul JL, et al. Phase II randomised trial of chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX4 or cisplatin plus fluorouracil in oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 2010;103(9):1349-55.
  94. van Meerten E, Muller K, Tilanus HW, Siersema PD, Eijkenboom WM, van Dekken H, et al. Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin for patients with oesophageal cancer: a phase II study. Br J Cancer 2006;94(10):1389-94.
  95. Faglige anbefalinger for strålebehandling ved øsofaguscancer. Østerås: Statens strålevern; 2009. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.nrpa.no/dav/bceaa9c914.pdf
  96. Weimann A, Braga M, Harsanyi L, Laviano A, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):224-44.
  97. Braga M, Ljungqvist O, Soeters P, Fearon K, Weimann A, Bozzetti F. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: surgery. Clin Nutr 2009;28(4):378-86.
  98. Bozzetti F. Nutritional support in patients with oesophageal cancer. Support Care Cancer 2010;18(Suppl 2):41-50.
  99. Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for forebygging og behandling av underernæring. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2009. IS-1580. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/publikasjoner/nasjonal-faglig-retningslinje-for-forebygging-og-behandling-av-underernering/Sider/default.aspx
  100. Homs MY, Steyerberg EW, Eijkenboom WM, Tilanus HW, Stalpers LJ, Bartelsman JF, et al. Palliatieve behandeling voor slokdarmkanker met passageklachten: gunstiger uitkomsten van eenmalige inwendige brachytherapie dan van plaatsing van een zelfexpanderende stent; multicentrisch, gerandomiseerd onderzoek [Palliative treatment of esophageal cancer with dysphagia: more favourable outcome from single-dose internal brachytherapy than from the placement of a self-expanding stent; a multicenter randomised study]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2005;149(50):2800-6 [På nederlandsk].
  101. Wenger U, Luo J, Lundell L, Lagergren J. A nationwide study of the use of self-expanding stents in patients with esophageal cancer in Sweden. Endoscopy 2005;37(4):329-34.
  102. Sgourakis G, Gockel I, Radtke A, Dedemadi G, Goumas K, Mylona S, et al. The use of self-expanding stents in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction cancer palliation: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of outcomes. Dig Dis Sci 2010;55(11):3018-30.
  103. Bergquist H, Wenger U, Johnsson E, Nyman J, Ejnell H, Hammerlid E, et al. Stent insertion or endoluminal brachytherapy as palliation of patients with advanced cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Dis Esophagus 2005;18(3):131-9.
  104. Levard H, Pouliquen X, Hay JM, Fingerhut A, Langlois-Zantain O, Huguier M, et al. 5-Fluorouracil and cisplatin as palliative treatment of advanced oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A multicentre randomised controlled trial. The French Associations for Surgical Research. Eur J Surg 1998;164(11):849-57.
  105. Muro K, Hamaguchi T, Ohtsu A, Boku N, Chin K, Hyodo I, et al. A phase II study of single-agent docetaxel in patients with metastatic esophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15(6):955-9.
  106. Ilson DH, Saltz L, Enzinger P, Huang Y, Kornblith A, Gollub M, et al. Phase II trial of weekly irinotecan plus cisplatin in advanced esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol 1999;17(10):3270-5.
  107. Cunningham D, Starling N, Rao S, Iveson T, Nicolson M, Coxon F, et al. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;358(1):36-46.
  108. Van Cutsem E, Moiseyenko VM, Tjulandin S, Majlis A, Constenla M, Boni C, et al. Phase III study of docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil compared with cisplatin and fluorouracil as first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a report of the V325 Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(31):4991-7.
  109. Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A, Chung HC, Shen L, Sawaki A, et al. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376(9742):687-97.
  110. Leary A, Assersohn L, Cunningham D, Norman AR, Chong G, Brown G, et al. A phase II trial evaluating capecitabine and irinotecan as second line treatment in patients with oesophago-gastric cancer who have progressed on, or within 3 months of platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2009;64(3):455-62.
  111. Roy A, Cunningham D, Hawkins R, Sorbye H, Adenis A, Barcelo JR, et al. Docetaxel combined with irinotecan or 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced oesophago-gastric cancer: a randomised phase II study. Br J Cancer 2012;107(3):435-41.
  112. Thuss-Patience PC, Kretzschmar A, Bichev D, Deist T, Hinke A, Breithaupt K, et al. Survival advantage for irinotecan versus best supportive care as second-line chemotherapy in gastric cancer--a randomised phase III study of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO). Eur J Cancer 2011;47(15):2306-14.
  113. Ford HE, Marshall A, Bridgewater JA, Janowitz T, Coxon FY, Wadsley J, et al. Docetaxel versus active symptom control for refractory oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (COUGAR-02): an open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(1):78-86.
  114. Fuchs CS, Tomasek J, Yong CJ, Dumitru F, Passalacqua R, Goswami C, et al. Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (REGARD): an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2014;383(9911):31-9.
  115. Wilke H, Muro K, Van Cutsem E, Oh SC, Bodoky G, Shimada Y, et al. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(11):1224-35.
  116. Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2015. IS-2285. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonalt-handlingsprogram-med-retningslinjer-for-palliasjon-i-kreftomsorgen
  117. Nasjonal helseplan (2007-2010). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartemenetet; 2006. Særtrykk av St.prp. nr. 1 (2006–2007) kapittel 6. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/HOD/Sykehus/Nasjonal_helseplan_Sartrykk.pdf
  118. Helse og omsorgstjenester: kreft [nettdokument]. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet [oppdatert 5 mars 2012; lest Mai 2012]. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/helse-og-omsorgstjenester/kreft/Sider/default.aspx