Velg data du ønsker med i utskriften
Tittel Versjon Status
Revisjonsdato Publiseringsdato
Utgiver(e) Publikasjonstype
  • Norsk tittel - Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for diagnostikk, behandling og oppfølging av kreft i magesekken (ventrikkelkreft), 28.09.2021
  • Engelsk tittel -
  • Versjon - 5
  • Status - Publisert
  • IS-nr - 3009
  • ISBN - 978-82-8081-404-3
  • DOI -
  • Revisjonsdato - 28.09.2021
  • Neste revisjon -
  • Publikasjonsdato - 01.12.2007
  • Utløpsdato -
  • Utgiver(e) - Helsedirektoratet
  • Redaktør -
  • Publikasjonstype - Nasjonale retningslinjer
  1. Larsen IK, red. Cancer in Norway 2015: Cancer incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence in Norway. Oslo: Cancer Registry of Norway; 2016. Tilgjengelig fra:
  2. Lauren P. The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: Diffuse and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. An attempt at a histo-clinical classification. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1965;64:31-49. 
  3. Larsson SC, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of gastric cancer: a prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(10):1998-2001. 
  4.  Forman D, Burley VJ. Gastric cancer: global pattern of the disease and an overview of environmental risk factors. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006;20(4):633-49. 
  5. Viste A, Eide GE, Halvorsen K, Maartmann-Moe H, Søreide O. The prognostic value of Lauren's histopathological classification system and ABO blood groups in patients with stomach carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 1986;12(2):135-41. 
  6. Reim D, Loos M, Vogl F, Novotny A, Schuster T, Langer R, et al. Prognostic implications of the seventh edition of the international union against cancer classification for patients with gastric cancer: the Western experience of patients treated in a single-center European institution. J Clin Oncol 2013;31(2):263-71. 
  7. Mayne ST, Risch HA, Dubrow R, Chow WH, Gammon MD, Vaughan TL, et al. Nutrient intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10(10):1055-62. 
  8. Kong P, Cai Q, Geng Q, Wang J, Lan Y, Zhan Y, et al. Vitamin intake reduce the risk of gastric cancer: meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized and observational studies. PLoS One 2014;9(12):e116060. 
  9. den Hoed CM, Kuipers EJ. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2016;18(7):34. 
  10. Buckland G, Travier N, Huerta JM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Siersema PD, Skeie G, et al. Healthy lifestyle index and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the EPIC cohort study. Int J Cancer 2015;137(3):598-606. 
  11. Yusefi AR, Bagheri Lankarani K, Bastani P, Radinmanesh M, Kavosi Z. Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018;19(3):591-603. 
  12. Fitzgerald RC, Hardwick R, Huntsman D, Carneiro F, Guilford P, Blair V, et al. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated consensus guidelines for clinical management and directions for future research. J Med Genet 2010;47(7):436-44. 
  13. van der Post RS, Vogelaar IP, Carneiro F, Guilford P, Huntsman D, Hoogerbrugge N, et al. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers. J Med Genet 2015;52(6):361-74. 
  14. Rudloff U. Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach: diagnosis and clinical perspectives. Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2018;11:447-59. 
  15. de Boer WB, Ee H, Kumarasinghe MP. Neoplastic Lesions of Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Proximal Polyposis Syndrome (GAPPS) Are Gastric Phenotype. Am J Surg Pathol 2018;42(1):1-8. 
  16. van der Post RS, Oliveira C, Guilford P, Carneiro F. Hereditary gastric cancer: what's new? Update 2013-2018. Fam Cancer 2019;18(3):363-7. 
  17. 17.     Lov om pasient- og brukerrettigheter (pasient- og brukerrettighetsloven) § 2-2 Rett til vurdering. LOV-1999-07-02-63. Sist endret i: LOV-2021-05-07-31 fra 01.07.2021. Tilgjengelig fra:§2-2
  18. Forskrift om prioritering av helsetjenester, rett til nødvendig helsehjelp fra spesialisthelsetjenesten, rett til behandling i utlandet og om klagenemnd (prioriteringsforskriften). FOR-2000-12-01-1208. Sist endret i: FOR-2020-02-04-119 fra 01.03.2020. Tilgjengelig fra:
  19. Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, red. Sabiston textbook of surgery: the biological basis of modern surgical practice. 20. utg. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017. 
  20. Kelly S, Harris KM, Berry E, Hutton J, Roderick P, Cullingworth J, et al. A systematic review of the staging performance of endoscopic ultrasound in gastro-oesophageal carcinoma. Gut 2001;49(4):534-9. 
  21. Park HS, Lee JM, Kim SH, Lee JY, Yang H-K, Han JK, et al. Three-Dimensional MDCT for Preoperative Local Staging of Gastric Cancer Using Gas and Water Distention Methods: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Am J Roentgenol 2010;195(6):1316-23. 
  22. Kwee RM, Kwee TC. Imaging in local staging of gastric cancer: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 2007;25(15):2107-16. 
  23. Wei WZ, Yu JP, Li J, Liu CS, Zheng XH. Evaluation of contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT in staging gastric cancer. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11(29):4592-5. 
  24. Ba-Ssalamah A, Matzek W, Baroud S, Bastati N, Zacherl J, Schoppmann SF, et al. Accuracy of hydro-multidetector row CT in the local T staging of oesophageal cancer compared to postoperative histopathological results. Eur Radiol 2011;21(11):2326-35. 
  25. Lee SM, Kim SH, Lee JM, Im SA, Bang YJ, Kim WH, et al. Usefulness of CT volumetry for primary gastric lesions in predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer. Abdom Imaging 2009;34(4):430-40. 
  26.  Hallinan J. CT volumetry for gastric carcinoma staging. Poster presentert på European Congress of Radiology; Vienna, Austria 1-5 mars 2012. 
  27. Barry JD, Edwards P, Lewis WG, Dhariwal D, Thomas GV. Special interest radiology improves the perceived preoperative stage of gastric cancer. Clin Radiol 2002;57(11):984-8. 
  28. Kawanaka Y, Kitajima K, Fukushima K, Mouri M, Doi H, Oshima T, et al. Added value of pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT for staging of advanced gastric cancer: Comparison with contrast-enhanced MDCT. Eur J Radiol 2016;85(5):989-95. 
  29. Irino T, Sano T, Hiki N, Ohashi M, Nunobe S, Kumagai K, et al. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer: a prospective cohort at a cancer institute in Japan. Surg Endosc 2018;32(1):268-75. 
  30. Miki Y, Tokunaga M, Tanizawa Y, Bando E, Kawamura T, Terashima M. Staging Laparoscopy for Patients with cM0, Type 4, and Large Type 3 Gastric Cancer. World J Surg 2015;39(11):2742-7. 
  31. WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board, red. Digestive System Tumours: WHO Classification of Tumours. 5. utg. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2019. 
  32. Søreide JA, Greve OJ, Gudlaugsson E, Størset S. Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach--proper identification and treatment remain a challenge. Scand J Gastroenterol 2016;51(6):646-53. 
  33. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma. Nature 2014;513(7517):202-9. 
  34. Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Analysis Working Group: Asan University, BC Cancer Agency, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Broad Institute, Brown University, et al. Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma. Nature 2017;541(7636):169-75. 
  35. Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C, red. TNM classification of malignant tumours. 8. utg. Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2017. 
  36. Mariette C, Piessen G, Briez N, Gronnier C, Triboulet JP. Oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: which therapeutic approach? Lancet Oncol 2011;12(3):296-305. 
  37. Lindahl AK, Harbitz TB, Liavåg I. The surgical treatment of gastric cancer: a retrospective study with special reference to total gastrectomy. Eur J Surg Oncol 1988;14(1):55-62. 
  38. Janssen CW, Jr., Lie RT, Maartmann-Moe H, Matre R. The influence of age on the growth and spread of gastric carcinoma. Br J Cancer 1991;63(4):623-5. 
  39. Wasmuth HH, Thorsen G, Nordgård K, Gjesdahl C. Ventrikkelkreft. Et tiårsmateriale med vekt på tidligkreft. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1997;117(7):931-4.
  40. Yasuda K, Shiraishi N, Suematsu T, Yamaguchi K, Adachi Y, Kitano S. Rate of detection of lymph node metastasis is correlated with the depth of submucosal invasion in early stage gastric carcinoma. Cancer 1999;85(10):2119-23. 
  41. Nakajima T. Gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan. Gastric Cancer 2002;5(1):1-5. 
  42. Tanaka N, Katai H, Taniguchi H, Saka M, Morita S, Fukagawa T, et al. Trends in characteristics of surgically treated early gastric cancer patients after the introduction of gastric cancer treatment guidelines in Japan. Gastric Cancer 2010;13(2):74-7. 
  43. Retana A, Silverstein T, Wassef W. An update in endoscopic management of gastric cancer. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011;27(6):576-82. 
  44. Kim JJ, Lee JH, Jung HY, Lee GH, Cho JY, Ryu CB, et al. EMR for early gastric cancer in Korea: a multicenter retrospective study. Gastrointest Endosc 2007;66(4):693-700. 
  45. Gotoda T, Yanagisawa A, Sasako M, Ono H, Nakanishi Y, Shimoda T, et al. Incidence of lymph node metastasis from early gastric cancer: estimation with a large number of cases at two large centers. Gastric Cancer 2000;3(4):219-25. 
  46. Oda I, Saito D, Tada M, Iishi H, Tanabe S, Oyama T, et al. A multicenter retrospective study of endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 2006;9(4):262-70. 
  47. Fukase K, Kato M, Kikuchi S, Inoue K, Uemura N, Okamoto S, et al. Effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on incidence of metachronous gastric carcinoma after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372(9636):392-7. 
  48. Miyata M, Yokoyama Y, Okoyama N, Joh T, Seno K, Sasaki M, et al. What are the appropriate indications for endoscopic mucosal resection for early gastric cancer? Analysis of 256 endoscopically resected lesions. Endoscopy 2000;32(10):773-8. 
  49. Kondo H, Gotoda T, Ono H, Oda I, Yamaguchi H, Saito D, et al. Early gastric cancer: endoscopic mucosal resection. Ann Ital Chir 2001;72(1):27-31. 
  50. Kakeji Y, Morita M, Maehara Y. Strategies for treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer. Surg Today 2010;40(4):287-94. 
  51. Hallissey MT, Jewkes AJ, Dunn JA, Ward L, Fielding JW. Resection-line involvement in gastric cancer: a continuing problem. Br J Surg 1993;80(11):1418-20. 
  52. Syn NL, Wee I, Shabbir A, Kim G, So JB. Pouch Versus No Pouch Following Total Gastrectomy: Meta-analysis of Randomized and Non-randomized Studies. Ann Surg 2019;269(6):1041-53. 
  53. Liedman B, Bosaeus I, Hugosson I, Lundell L. Long-term beneficial effects of a gastric reservoir on weight control after total gastrectomy: a study of potential mechanisms. Br J Surg 1998;85(4):542-7. 
  54. Bozzetti F, Bonfanti G, Bufalino R, Menotti V, Persano S, Andreola S, et al. Adequacy of margins of resection in gastrectomy for cancer. Ann Surg 1982;196(6):685-90. 
  55. Viste A, Haùgstvedt T, Eide GE, Soreide O. Postoperative complications and mortality after surgery for gastric cancer. Ann Surg 1988;207(1):7-13. 
  56. Cui M, Li Z, Xing J, Yao Z, Liu M, Chen L, et al. A prospective randomized clinical trial comparing D2 dissection in laparoscopic and open gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Med Oncol 2015;32(10):241. 
  57. Hu Y, Huang C, Sun Y, Su X, Cao H, Hu J, et al. Morbidity and Mortality of Laparoscopic Versus Open D2 Distal Gastrectomy for Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Oncol 2016;34(12):1350-7.
  58. Best LM, Mughal M, Gurusamy KS. Laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;3:CD011389. 
  59. Lee JH, Lee CM, Son SY, Ahn SH, Park DJ, Kim HH. Laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer: long-term oncologic results. Surgery 2014;155(1):154-64. 
  60. Sano T, Sasako M, Mizusawa J, Yamamoto S, Katai H, Yoshikawa T, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate Splenectomy in Total Gastrectomy for Proximal Gastric Carcinoma. Ann Surg 2017;265(2):277-83. 
  61. Yu W, Choi GS, Chung HY. Randomized clinical trial of splenectomy versus splenic preservation in patients with proximal gastric cancer. Br J Surg 2006;93(5):559-63. 
  62. Allum WH, Blazeby JM, Griffin SM, Cunningham D, Jankowski JA, Wong R. Guidelines for the management of oesophageal and gastric cancer. Gut 2011;60(11):1449-72. 
  63. Sato Y, Yamada T, Yoshikawa T, Machida R, Mizusawa J, Katayama H, et al. Randomized controlled Phase III trial to evaluate omentum preserving gastrectomy for patients with advanced gastric cancer (JCOG1711, ROAD-GC). Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020;50(11):1321-4. 
  64. Kurokawa Y, Doki Y, Mizusawa J, Terashima M, Katai H, Yoshikawa T, et al. Bursectomy versus omentectomy alone for resectable gastric cancer (JCOG1001): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018;3(7):460-8. 
  65.  Kim DJ, Lee JH, Kim W. A comparison of total versus partial omentectomy for advanced gastric cancer in laparoscopic gastrectomy. World J Surg Oncol 2014;12:64. 
  66. Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines 2014 (ver. 4). Gastric Cancer 2017;20(1):1-19. 
  67. Songun I, Putter H, Kranenbarg EM, Sasako M, van de Velde CJ. Surgical treatment of gastric cancer: 15-year follow-up results of the randomised nationwide Dutch D1D2 trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11(5):439-49. 
  68. Ichikura T, Ogawa T, Chochi K, Kawabata T, Sugasawa H, Mochizuki H. Minimum number of lymph nodes that should be examined for the International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification of gastric carcinoma. World J Surg 2003;27(3):330-3. 
  69. Mortensen K, Nilsson M, Slim K, Schäfer M, Mariette C, Braga M, et al. Consensus guidelines for enhanced recovery after gastrectomy: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) Society recommendations. Br J Surg 2014;101(10):1209-29. 
  70. Bringeland EA, Wasmuth HH, Johnsen G, Johnsen TB, Juel IS, Mjones P, et al. Outcomes among patients treated for gastric adenocarcinoma during the last decade. J Surg Oncol 2013;107(7):752-7. 
  71. Halm EA, Lee C, Chassin MR. Is volume related to outcome in health care? A systematic review and methodologic critique of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2002;137(6):511-20. 
  72. Killeen SD, O'Sullivan MJ, Coffey JC, Kirwan WO, Redmond HP. Provider volume and outcomes for oncological procedures. Br J Surg 2005;92(4):389-402. 
  73. Sasako M, Sakuramoto S, Katai H, Kinoshita T, Furukawa H, Yamaguchi T, et al. Five-year outcomes of a randomized phase III trial comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 versus surgery alone in stage II or III gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 2011;29(33):4387-93. 
  74. Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Stemmermann GN, et al. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med 2001;345(10):725-30. 
  75. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355(1):11-20. 
  76. Ychou M, Boige V, Pignon JP, Conroy T, Bouche O, Lebreton G, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy compared with surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma: an FNCLCC and FFCD multicenter phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 2011;29(13):1715-21. 
  77. Ronellenfitsch U, Schwarzbach M, Hofheinz R, Kienle P, Kieser M, Slanger TE, et al. Perioperative chemo(radio)therapy versus primary surgery for resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, gastroesophageal junction, and lower esophagus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(5):CD008107. 
  78. Sumpter K, Harper-Wynne C, Cunningham D, Rao S, Tebbutt N, Norman AR, et al. Report of two protocol planned interim analyses in a randomised multicentre phase III study comparing capecitabine with fluorouracil and oxaliplatin with cisplatin in patients with advanced oesophagogastric cancer receiving ECF. Br J Cancer 2005;92(11):1976-83. 
  79. Bringeland EA, Wasmuth HH, Fougner R, Mjones P, Gronbech JE. Impact of perioperative chemotherapy on oncological outcomes after gastric cancer surgery. Br J Surg 2014;101(13):1712-20. 
  80. Al-Batran SE, Hofheinz RD, Pauligk C, Kopp HG, Haag GM, Luley KB, et al. Histopathological regression after neoadjuvant docetaxel, oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin versus epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil or capecitabine in patients with resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4-AIO): results from the phase 2 part of a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 2/3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17(12):1697-708. 
  81. Al-Batran SE, Homann N, Pauligk C, Goetze TO, Meiler J, Kasper S, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel versus fluorouracil or capecitabine plus cisplatin and epirubicin for locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4): a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet 2019;393(10184):1948-57. 
  82. Neoadjuvant Study Using Trastuzumab or Trastuzumab With Pertuzumab in Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma (INNOVATION) [pågående studie]. 2015-2024. NCT02205047. Tilgjengelig fra:
  83. Honório MX, Suzuki C, Espin-Garcia O, Allen MJ, Ma L, Almugbel FA, et al. Asian-ethnicity related differences among patients with metastatic gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann Oncol 2020;31(Suppl 4):S841-S73. 
  84. Earle CC, Maroun JA. Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection for gastric cancer: revisiting a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998;17:263a. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998;17:263a. 
  85. Liu TS, Wang Y, Chen SY, Sun YH. An updated meta-analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection for gastric cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 2008;34(11):1208-16. 
  86. Paoletti X, Oba K, Burzykowski T, Michiels S, Ohashi Y, Pignon JP, et al. Benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Jama 2010;303(17):1729-37. 
  87. Diaz-Nieto R, Orti-Rodriguez R, Winslet M. Post-surgical chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastric cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(9):CD008415. 
  88. Sakuramoto S, Sasako M, Yamaguchi T, Kinoshita T, Fujii M, Nashimoto A, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine. N Engl J Med 2007;357(18):1810-20. 
  89. Bang YJ, Kim YW, Yang HK, Chung HC, Park YK, Lee KH, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): a phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;379(9813):315-21. 
  90. Noh SH, Park SR, Yang HK, Chung HC, Chung IJ, Kim SW, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): 5-year follow-up of an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(12):1389-96. 
  91. Shapiro J, van Lanschot JJB, Hulshof M, van Hagen P, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BPL, et al. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy plus surgery versus surgery alone for oesophageal or junctional cancer (CROSS): long-term results of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2015;16(9):1090-8. 
  92. van Hagen P, Hulshof MC, van Lanschot JJ, Steyerberg EW, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Wijnhoven BP, et al. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for esophageal or junctional cancer. N Engl J Med 2012;366(22):2074-84. 
  93. Kelly RJ, Ajani JA, Kuzdzal J, Zander T, Van Cutsem E, Piessen G, et al. Adjuvant Nivolumab in Resected Esophageal or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer. N Engl J Med 2021;384(13):1191-203. 
  94. Kelly RJ, Ajani JA, Kuzdzal J, Zander T, Van Cutsem E, Piessen G, et al. Adjuvant nivolumab in resected esophageal or gastroesophageal junction cancer (EC/GEJC) following neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT): First results of the CheckMate 577 study. Ann Oncol 2020;31(Suppl 4):S1142-S215. 
  95. Smalley SR, Benedetti JK, Haller DG, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Ajani JA, et al. Updated analysis of SWOG-directed intergroup study 0116: a phase III trial of adjuvant radiochemotherapy versus observation after curative gastric cancer resection. J Clin Oncol 2012;30(19):2327-33. 
  96. Smyth EC, Verheij M, Allum W, Cunningham D, Cervantes A, Arnold D. Gastric cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol 2016;27(suppl 5):v38-v49. 
  97. Dikken JL, van Sandick JW, Maurits Swellengrebel HA, Lind PA, Putter H, Jansen EP, et al. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and chemotherapy or by surgery and chemoradiotherapy for patients with resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS). BMC Cancer 2011;11:329. 
  98. Park SH, Sohn TS, Lee J, Lim DH, Hong ME, Kim KM, et al. Phase III Trial to Compare Adjuvant Chemotherapy With Capecitabine and Cisplatin Versus Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Gastric Cancer: Final Report of the Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Stomach Tumors Trial, Including Survival and Subset Analyses. J Clin Oncol 2015;33(28):3130-6. 
  99. Park SH, Zang DY, Han B, Ji JH, Kim TG, Oh SY, et al. ARTIST 2: Interim results of a phase III trial involving adjuvant chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy after D2-gastrectomy in stage II/III gastric cancer (GC). J Clin Oncol 2019;37(Suppl 15):4001. 
  100. Bamias A, Karina M, Papakostas P, Kostopoulos I, Bobos M, Vourli G, et al. A randomized phase III study of adjuvant platinum/docetaxel chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy in patients with gastric cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010;65(6):1009-21. 
  101. Kwon HC, Kim MC, Kim KH, Jang JS, Oh SY, Kim SH, et al. Adjuvant chemoradiation versus chemotherapy in completely resected advanced gastric cancer with D2 nodal dissection. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2010;6(4):278-85. 
  102. Kim TH, Park SR, Ryu KW, Kim YW, Bae JM, Lee JH, et al. Phase 3 trial of postoperative chemotherapy alone versus chemoradiation therapy in stage III-IV gastric cancer treated with R0 gastrectomy and D2 lymph node dissection. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;84(5):e585-92. 
  103. Yu C, Yu R, Zhu W, Song Y, Li T. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer patients after standard D1/D2 surgery. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2012;138(2):255-9. 
  104. Zhu WG, Xua DF, Pu J, Zong CD, Li T, Tao GZ, et al. A randomized, controlled, multicenter study comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy with chemotherapy alone in gastric cancer patients with D2 resection. Radiother Oncol 2012;104(3):361-6. 
  105. Cats A, Jansen EPM, van Grieken NCT, Sikorska K, Lind P, Nordsmark M, et al. Chemotherapy versus chemoradiotherapy after surgery and preoperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (CRITICS): an international, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2018;19(5):616-28. 
  106. Leong T, Smithers BM, Michael M, Gebski V, Boussioutas A, Miller D, et al. TOPGEAR: a randomised phase III trial of perioperative ECF chemotherapy versus preoperative chemoradiation plus perioperative ECF chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer (an international, intergroup trial of the AGITG/TROG/EORTC/NCIC CTG). BMC Cancer 2015;15:532. 
  107. Dikken JL, Jansen EP, Cats A, Bakker B, Hartgrink HH, Kranenbarg EM, et al. Impact of the extent of surgery and postoperative chemoradiotherapy on recurrence patterns in gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28(14):2430-6. 
  108. Stiekema J, Trip AK, Jansen EP, Boot H, Cats A, Ponz OB, et al. The prognostic significance of an R1 resection in gastric cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol 2014;21(4):1107-14. 
  109. Trip AK, Nijkamp J, van Tinteren H, Cats A, Boot H, Jansen EP, et al. IMRT limits nephrotoxicity after chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer. Radiother Oncol 2014;112(2):289-94. 
  110. Smyth EC, Wotherspoon A, Peckitt C, Gonzalez D, Hulkki-Wilson S, Eltahir Z, et al. Mismatch Repair Deficiency, Microsatellite Instability, and Survival: An Exploratory Analysis of the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) Trial. JAMA Oncol 2017;3(9):1197-203. 
  111. Choi YY, Kim H, Shin SJ, Kim HY, Lee J, Yang HK, et al. Microsatellite Instability and Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Expression in Stage II/III Gastric Cancer: Post Hoc Analysis of the CLASSIC Randomized Controlled study. Ann Surg 2019;270(2):309-16. 
  112. Lee JY, Choi IJ, Cho SJ, Kim CG, Kook MC, Lee JH, et al. Routine follow-up biopsies after complete endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer may be unnecessary. J Gastric Cancer 2012;12(2):88-98. 
  113. D'Ugo D, Biondi A, Tufo A, Persiani R. Follow-up: the evidence. Dig Surg 2013;30(2):159-68. 
  114. Meng Q, Tan S, Jiang Y, Han J, Xi Q, Zhuang Q, et al. Post-discharge oral nutritional supplements with dietary advice in patients at nutritional risk after surgery for gastric cancer: A randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr 2021;40(1):40-6. 
  115. Helsedirektoratet. Seneffekter etter kreftbehandling. rev. utg. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2020. Tilgjengelig fra:
  116. Riihimäki M, Hemminki A, Sundquist K, Sundquist J, Hemminki K. Metastatic spread in patients with gastric cancer. Oncotarget 2016;7(32):52307-16. 
  117. Waddell T, Verheij M, Allum W, Cunningham D, Cervantes A, Arnold D. Gastric cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Eur J Surg Oncol 2014;40(5):584-91. 
  118. Fujitani K, Yang HK, Mizusawa J, Kim YW, Terashima M, Han SU, et al. Gastrectomy plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for advanced gastric cancer with a single non-curable factor (REGATTA): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2016;17(3):309-18. 
  119. Pacelli F, Cusumano G, Rosa F, Marrelli D, Dicosmo M, Cipollari C, et al. Multivisceral resection for locally advanced gastric cancer: an Italian multicenter observational study. JAMA Surg 2013;148(4):353-60. 
  120. Lai KK, Fang WL, Wu CW, Huang KH, Chen JH, Lo SS, et al. Surgical impact on gastric cancer with locoregional invasion. World J Surg 2011;35(11):2479-84. 
  121. Min JS, Jin SH, Park S, Kim SB, Bang HY, Lee JI. Prognosis of curatively resected pT4b gastric cancer with respect to invaded organ type. Ann Surg Oncol 2012;19(2):494-501. 
  122. Martin RC, 2nd, Jaques DP, Brennan MF, Karpeh M. Achieving RO resection for locally advanced gastric cancer: is it worth the risk of multiorgan resection? J Am Coll Surg 2002;194(5):568-77. 
  123. Okano K, Maeba T, Ishimura K, Karasawa Y, Goda F, Wakabayashi H, et al. Hepatic resection for metastatic tumors from gastric cancer. Ann Surg 2002;235(1):86-91. 
  124. Komeda K, Hayashi M, Kubo S, Nagano H, Nakai T, Kaibori M, et al. High survival in patients operated for small isolated liver metastases from gastric cancer: a multi-institutional study. World J Surg 2014;38(10):2692-7. 
  125. Ueda K, Iwahashi M, Nakamori M, Nakamura M, Naka T, Ishida K, et al. Analysis of the prognostic factors and evaluation of surgical treatment for synchronous liver metastases from gastric cancer. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2009;394(4):647-53. 
  126. Martella L, Bertozzi S, Londero AP, Steffan A, De Paoli P, Bertola G. Surgery for Liver Metastases From Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Medicine 2015;94(31):e1113. 
  127. Ambiru S, Miyazaki M, Ito H, Nakagawa K, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, et al. Benefits and limits of hepatic resection for gastric metastases. Am J Surg 2001;181(3):279-83. 
  128. Markar SR, Mikhail S, Malietzis G, Athanasiou T, Mariette C, Sasako M, et al. Influence of Surgical Resection of Hepatic Metastases From Gastric Adenocarcinoma on Long-term Survival: Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis. Ann Surg 2016;263(6):1092-101. 
  129. Al-Batran SE, Homann N, Pauligk C, Illerhaus G, Martens UM, Stoehlmacher J, et al. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection on Survival in Patients With Limited Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: The AIO-FLOT3 Trial. JAMA Oncol 2017;3(9):1237-44. 
  130. Al-Batran SE, Goetze TO, Mueller DW, Vogel A, Winkler M, Lorenzen S, et al. The RENAISSANCE (AIO-FLOT5) trial: effect of chemotherapy alone vs. chemotherapy followed by surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with limited-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction - a phase III trial of the German AIO/CAO-V/CAOGI. BMC Cancer 2017;17(1):893. 
  131. Jeurnink SM, Steyerberg EW, Hof G, van Eijck CH, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Gastrojejunostomy versus stent placement in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a comparison in 95 patients. J Surg Oncol 2007;96(5):389-96. 
  132. Haugstvedt T, Viste A, Eide GE, Söreide O. The survival benefit of resection in patients with advanced stomach cancer: the Norwegian multicenter experience. Norwegian Stomach Cancer Trial. World J Surg 1989;13(5):617-21; discussion 21-2. 
  133. Larssen L, Medhus AW, Hjermstad MJ, Korner H, Glomsaker T, Søberg T, et al. Patient-reported outcomes in palliative gastrointestinal stenting: a Norwegian multicenter study. Surg Endosc 2011;25(10):3162-9. 
  134. Kim MM, Rana V, Janjan NA, Das P, Phan AT, Delclos ME, et al. Clinical benefit of palliative radiation therapy in advanced gastric cancer. Acta Oncol 2008;47(3):421-7. 
  135. Tey J, Back MF, Shakespeare TP, Mukherjee RK, Lu JJ, Lee KM, et al. The role of palliative radiation therapy in symptomatic locally advanced gastric cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;67(2):385-8. 
  136. Wagner AD, Unverzagt S, Grothe W, Kleber G, Grothey A, Haerting J, et al. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;(3):CD004064. 
  137. Cunningham D, Starling N, Rao S, Iveson T, Nicolson M, Coxon F, et al. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin for advanced esophagogastric cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;358(1):36-46. 
  138. Enzinger PC, Burtness B, Hollis D, Niedzwiecki D, Ilson D, Benson AB, et al. CALGB 80403/ECOG 1206: A randomized phase II study of three standard chemotherapy regimens (ECF, IC, FOLFOX) plus cetuximab in metastatic esophageal and GE junction cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2010;28(15 suppl):4006. 
  139. Ter Veer E, Haj Mohammad N, van Valkenhoef G, Ngai LL, Mali RMA, Anderegg MC, et al. The Efficacy and Safety of First-line Chemotherapy in Advanced Esophagogastric Cancer: A Network Meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2016;108(10). 
  140. Carmona-Bayonas A, Jiménez-Fonseca P, Custodio A, Sánchez Cánovas M, Hernández R, Pericay C, et al. Anthracycline-based triplets do not improve the efficacy of platinum-fluoropyrimidine doublets in first-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer: real-world data from the AGAMEMON National Cancer Registry. Gastric Cancer 2018;21(1):96-105. 
  141. Van Cutsem E, Moiseyenko VM, Tjulandin S, Majlis A, Constenla M, Boni C, et al. Phase III study of docetaxel and cisplatin plus fluorouracil compared with cisplatin and fluorouracil as first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer: a report of the V325 Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(31):4991-7. 
  142. Shah MA, Janjigian YY, Stoller R, Shibata S, Kemeny M, Krishnamurthi S, et al. Randomized Multicenter Phase II Study of Modified Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Fluorouracil (DCF) Versus DCF Plus Growth Factor Support in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Study of the US Gastric Cancer Consortium. J Clin Oncol 2015;33(33):3874-9. 
  143. Al-Batran SE, Hartmann JT, Hofheinz R, Homann N, Rethwisch V, Probst S, et al. Biweekly fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction: a phase II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie. Ann Oncol 2008;19(11):1882-7. 
  144. Van Cutsem E, Boni C, Tabernero J, Massuti B, Middleton G, Dane F, et al. Docetaxel plus oxaliplatin with or without fluorouracil or capecitabine in metastatic or locally recurrent gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study. Ann Oncol 2015;26(1):149-56. 
  145. Chu MP, Hecht JR, Slamon D, Wainberg ZA, Bang YJ, Hoff PM, et al. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Capecitabine Efficacy in Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer: Secondary Analysis of the TRIO-013/LOGiC Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2017;3(6):767-73. 
  146. Sun J, Ilich AI, Kim CA, Chu MP, Wong GG, Ghosh S, et al. Concomitant Administration of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Capecitabine is Associated With Increased Recurrence Risk in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer Patients. Clin Colorectal Cancer 2016;15(3):257-63. 
  147. Amstutz U, Henricks LM, Offer SM, Barbarino J, Schellens JHM, Swen JJ, et al. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Genotype and Fluoropyrimidine Dosing: 2017 Update. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018;103(2):210-6. 
  148. Bang YJ, Van Cutsem E, Feyereislova A, Chung HC, Shen L, Sawaki A, et al. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (ToGA): a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376(9742):687-97. 
  149. Ter Veer E, Creemers A, de Waal L, van Oijen MGH, van Laarhoven HWM. Comparing cytotoxic backbones for first-line trastuzumab-containing regimens in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced oesophagogastric cancer: A meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2018;143(2):438-48. 
  150. Shitara K, Van Cutsem E, Bang YJ, Fuchs C, Wyrwicz L, Lee KW, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Pembrolizumab or Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy vs Chemotherapy Alone for Patients With First-line, Advanced Gastric Cancer: The KEYNOTE-062 Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol 2020;6(10):1571-80. 
  151. Janjigian YY, Shitara K, Moehler M, Garrido M, Salman P, Shen L, et al. First-line nivolumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for advanced gastric, gastro-oesophageal junction, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (CheckMate 649): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2021;398(10294):27-40. 
  152. Fuchs CS, Tomasek J, Yong CJ, Dumitru F, Passalacqua R, Goswami C, et al. Ramucirumab monotherapy for previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (REGARD): an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2014;383(9911):31-9.
  153. Wilke H, Muro K, Van Cutsem E, Oh SC, Bodoky G, Shimada Y, et al. Ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW): a double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(11):1224-35. 
  154. Ford HE, Marshall A, Bridgewater JA, Janowitz T, Coxon FY, Wadsley J, et al. Docetaxel versus active symptom control for refractory oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma (COUGAR-02): an open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(1):78-86. 
  155. Hironaka S, Ueda S, Yasui H, Nishina T, Tsuda M, Tsumura T, et al. Randomized, open-label, phase III study comparing irinotecan with paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric cancer without severe peritoneal metastasis after failure of prior combination chemotherapy using fluoropyrimidine plus platinum: WJOG 4007 trial. J Clin Oncol 2013;31(35):4438-44. 
  156. Shitara K, Doi T, Dvorkin M, Mansoor W, Arkenau HT, Prokharau A, et al. Trifluridine/tipiracil versus placebo in patients with heavily pretreated metastatic gastric cancer (TAGS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2018;19(11):1437-48. 
  157. Shitara K, Özgüroğlu M, Bang YJ, Di Bartolomeo M, Mandalà M, Ryu MH, et al. Pembrolizumab versus paclitaxel for previously treated, advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer (KEYNOTE-061): a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2018;392(10142):123-33. 
  158. Kim ST, Cristescu R, Bass AJ, Kim KM, Odegaard JI, Kim K, et al. Comprehensive molecular characterization of clinical responses to PD-1 inhibition in metastatic gastric cancer. Nat Med 2018;24(9):1449-58. 
  159. Kang YK, Boku N, Satoh T, Ryu MH, Chao Y, Kato K, et al. Nivolumab in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer refractory to, or intolerant of, at least two previous chemotherapy regimens (ONO-4538-12, ATTRACTION-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet 2017;390(10111):2461-71. 
  160. Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonalt handlingsprogram for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2019. IS-2800. Tilgjengelig fra:
  161. Nasjonal helseplan (2007-2010). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet; 2006. Særtrykk av St.prp. nr. 1 (2006-2007) kapittel 6. Tilgjengelig fra:
  162. Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer, veiledere og kvalitetsindikatorer. § 12-5 I: Lov om kommunale helse- og omsorgstjenester m.m. (helse- og omsorgstjenesteloven). LOV-2011-06-24-30. Tilgjengelig fra:§12-5