Forside  Symptomer og tilstander  Smerte  

Symptomer og tilstander



Velg data du ønsker med i utskriften
Tittel Versjon Status
Revisjonsdato Publiseringsdato
Utgiver(e) Publikasjonstype
  • Norsk tittel - Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen
  • Engelsk tittel -
  • Versjon - 5
  • Status - Publisert
  • IS-nr - 2285
  • ISBN - 978-82-8081-368-8
  • DOI -
  • Revisjonsdato - 26.03.2015
  • Neste revisjon -
  • Publikasjonsdato - 22.04.2010
  • Utløpsdato -
  • Utgiver(e) - Helsedirektoratet
  • Redaktør -
  • Publikasjonstype - Nasjonale retningslinjer
  1. Den norske legeforening: Retningslinjer for smertelindring  [cited 2014 04.12.14]. Available from:
  2. C R. Dame Cicely Saunders. Founder of the modern hospice movement. Br Med J. 2005(331):238.
  3. Goudas LC, Bloch R, Gialeli-Goudas M, Lau J, Carr DB. The epidemiology of cancer pain. Cancer Invest. 2005;23(2):182-90.
  4. Holtan A, Aass N, Nordoy T, Haugen DF, Kaasa S, Mohr W, et al. Prevalence of pain in hospitalised cancer patients in Norway: a national survey. Palliative medicine. 2007;21(1):7-13.
  5. Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G. Prevalence of undertreatment in cancer pain. A review of published literature. Ann Oncol. 2008;19(12):1985-91.
  6. Klepstad P, Kaasa S, Cherny N, Hanks G, de Conno F. Pain and pain treatments in European palliative care units. A cross sectional survey from the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. Palliative medicine. 2005;19(6):477-84.
  7. Laugsand E, Jakobsen G, Kaasa  S, Klepstad P. Inadequate symptom control in advanced cancer patients across Europe. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2011;19(12):2005-14.
  8. Von Roenn JH, Cleeland CS, Gonin R, Hatfield AK, Pandya KJ. Physician attitudes and practice in cancer pain management. A survey from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(2):121-6.
  9. Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S, Bennett MI, Brunelli C, Cherny N, et al. Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(2):e58-e68.
  10. Kaasa  S, Apolone G, Klepstad P, Loge HJ, Hjermstad M, Corli O, et al. Expert conference on cancer pain assessment and classification, the need for international consensus: working proposals on international standards. BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care. 2011;1:281-7.
  11. Knudsen AK, Brunelli C, Klepstad P, Aass N, Apolone G, Corli O, et al. Which domains should be included in a cancer pain classification system? Analyses of longitudinal data. Pain. 2012; 53(3) 696-703.
  12. Haugen DF, Hjermstad MJ, Hagen N, Caraceni A, Kaasa S. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: a systematic literature review. Pain. 2010;149(3):476-82.
  13. Hagen NA, Stiles C, Nekolaichuk C, Biondo P, Carlson LE, Fisher K, et al. The Alberta Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool for cancer patients: a validation study using a delphi process and patient think-aloud interviews. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2008;35(2):136-52.
  14. Treede RD, Jensen TS, Campbell JN, Cruccu G, Dostrovsky JO, Griffin JW, et al. Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology. 2008;70(18):1630-5.
  15. Haanpaa M, Attal N, Backonja M, Baron R, Bennett M, Bouhassira D, et al. NeuPSIG guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment. Pain. 2011;152(1):14-27.
  16. Laird BJ, Boyd AC, Colvin LA, Fallon MT. Are cancer pain and depression interdependent? A systematic review. Psychooncology. 2009;18(5):459-64.
  17. Andersen BL, DeRubeis RJ, Berman BS, Gruman J, Champion VL, Massie MJ, et al.           Screening, assessment, and care of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: an American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline adaptation. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(15):1605-19.
  18. Arcidiacono PG, Calori G, Carrara S, McNicol ED, Testoni PA. Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2011(3):CD007519.
  19. Nabal M, Librada S, Redondo MJ, Pigni A, Brunelli C, Caraceni A. The role of             paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in addition to WHO Step III opioids in the control of pain in advanced cancer. A systematic review of the literature. Palliat Med. 2012;26(4):305-12.
  20. McNicol E, Strassels SA, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr DB. NSAIDS or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2005(1):CD005180.
  21. Caraceni A, Pigni A, Brunelli C. Is oral morphine still the first choice opioid for moderate to severe cancer pain? A systematic review within the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative guidelines project. Palliat Med. 2011;25(5):402-9.
  22. King S, Forbes K, Hanks GW, Ferro CJ, Chambers EJ. A systematic review of the use of opioid medication for those with moderate to severe cancer pain and renal impairment: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative opioid guidelines project. Palliat Med. 2011;25(5):525-52.
  23. Hansen MS, Mathiesen O, Trautner S, Dahl JB. Intranasal fentanyl in the treatment of acute pain--a systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56(4):407-19.
  24. Jandhyala R, Fullarton JR, Bennett MI. Efficacy of Rapid-Onset Oral Fentanyl Formulations vs. Oral Morphine for Cancer-Related Breakthrough Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Trials. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013; 46(4): 573-80.
  25. Deandrea S, Corli O, Moschetti I, Apolone G. Managing severe cancer pain: the role of transdermal buprenorphine: a systematic review. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2009;5(5):707-18.
  26. Fredheim OM, Kaasa S, Dale O, Klepstad P, Landro NI, Borchgrevink PC. Opioid switching from oral slow release morphine to oral methadone may improve pain control in chronic non-malignant pain: a nine-month follow-up study. Palliative medicine. 2006;20(1):35-41.
  27. Moksnes K, Dale O, Rosland JH, Paulsen O, Klepstad P, Kaasa S. How to switch from morphine or oxycodone to methadone in cancer patients? A randomised clinical phase II trial. Eur J Cancer. 2011; 47(16): 2463-70.
  28. Dean M. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28(5):497-504.
  29. Bell RF, Eccleston C, Kalso EA. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2012;11:CD003351.
  30. Paulsen O, Klepstad P, Rosland JH, Aass N, Albert E, Fayers P, et al. Efficacy of Methylprednisolone on Pain, Fatigue, and Appetite Loss in Patients With Advanced Cancer Using Opioids: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(29): 3221-8.
  31. Candy B, Jackson KC, Jones L, Tookman A, King M. Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2012;10:CD004596.
  32. Loge J. Angst og depresjon. In: Kaasa S, editor. Palliasjon, nordisk lærebok. 2. ed. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk; 2008. p. 531-47.
  33. Mercadante S, Porzio G, Valle A, Fusco F, Aielli F, Costanzo V. Palliative sedation in patients with advanced cancer followed at home: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011;41(4):754-60.
  34. Ford JA, Jones R, Elders A, Mulatero C, Royle P, Sharma P, et al. Denosumab for treatment of bone metastases secondary to solid tumours: systematic review and network meta-analysis. European Journal of Cancer. 2013;49(2):416-30.
  35. European Palliative Care Research Collaboration (EPCRC)  [cited 2012 27.09.]. Available from:
  36. Knudsen A, Aass N, Fainsinger R, Caraceni A, Klepstad P, Jordhoy M, et al. Classification of pain in cancer patients - a systematic literature review. Palliative medicine. 2009;23(4):295-308.
  37. Haugen DF, Hjermstad MJ, Hagen N, Caraceni A, Kaasa S. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: A systematic literature review. Pain. 2010;Epub ahead of print.
  38. Hølen JC, Hjermstad MJ, Loge JH, Fayers PM, Caraceni A, De Conno F, et al. Pain assessment tools: is the content appropriate for use in palliative care? Journal of pain and symptom management. 2006;32(6):567-80.
  39. Hjermstad M, Gibbins J, Haugen D, Caraceni A, Loge J, Kaasa S. Pain assessment tools in palliative care: an urgent need for consensus. Palliative medicine. 2008;22(8):895-903.
  40. Knudsen AK, Aass N, Heitzer E, Klepstad P, Hjermstad MJ, Schippinger W, et al. Interviews with patients with advanced cancer-another step towards an international cancer pain classification system. Support Care Cancer. 2012; 20(10): 2491-500.
  41. Fainsinger R, Nekolaichuk C, Lawlor P, Hagen N, Bercovitch M, Fisch M, et al. An international multicentre validation study of a pain classification system for cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(16):2896-904.
  42. Knudsen A, Brunelli C, Kaasa  S, Apolone G, Corli O, Montanari M, et al. Which variables are associated with pain intensity and treatment response in advanced cancer patients? Implications for a future classification system for cancer pain. European Journal of Pain. 2011;15(3):320-7.