Forside  
Velg data du ønsker med i utskriften
Tittel Versjon Status
IS-nr ISBN
Revisjonsdato Publiseringsdato
Utgiver(e) Publikasjonstype
  • Norsk tittel - Nasjonalt handlingsprogram med retningslinjer for palliasjon i kreftomsorgen
  • Engelsk tittel -
  • Versjon - 6
  • Status - Publisert
  • IS-nr - 2800
  • ISBN - 978-82-8081-543-9
  • DOI -
  • Revisjonsdato - 01.10.2019
  • Neste revisjon -
  • Publikasjonsdato - 22.04.2010
  • Utløpsdato -
  • Utgiver(e) - Helsedirektoratet
  • Redaktør -
  • Publikasjonstype - Nasjonale retningslinjer
  1. Clark D. From margins to centre: a review of the history of palliative care in cancer. Lancet Oncol 2007;8(5):430-8.
  2. Leve med kreft. Nasjonal kreftstrategi (2018–2022). Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet; 2018. I-1184 B. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/
    266bf1eec38940888a589ec86d79da20/
    regjeringens_kreftstrategi_180418.pdf
  3. På liv og død: palliasjon til alvorlig syke og døende. Oslo: Departementenes sikkerhets- og serviceorganisasjon, Informasjonsforvaltning; 2017. NOU 2017:16. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/nou-2017-16/id2582548/
  4. WHO definition of palliative care [nettdokument]. Geneve: World Health Organisation [oppdatert 2018; lest 3. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/
  5. Helsedirektoratet. Rapport om tilbudet til personer med behov for lindrende behandling og omsorg mot livets slutt: å skape liv til dagene. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2015. IS-2278. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.helsedirektoratet.no/tema/palliasjon/_/attachment/download/64b02e2c-9ec9-
    4709-b6fa-a156a79e9baf:3828cd931ca7996c7220dd12f25bb1a4876dda58/Rapport
    %20om%20tilbudet%20til%20personer%20med%20behov%20for%20lindrende%20
    behandling%20og%20omsorg%20ved%20livets%20slutt.pdf
  6. Rosland JH, von Hofacker S, Paulsen O. Den døende pasient. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2006;126(4):467-70.
  7. Ellershaw J, Wilkinson S. Care of the dying: a pathway to excellence. 2. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011.
  8. van den Beuken-van Everdingen MH, de Rijke JM, Kessels AG, Schouten HC, van Kleef M, Patijn J. Prevalence of pain in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the past 40 years. Ann Oncol 2007;18(9):1437-49.
  9. van den Beuken-van Everdingen MH, Hochstenbach LM, Joosten EA, Tjan-Heijnen VC, Janssen DJ. Update on prevalence of pain in patients with cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage 2016;51(6):1070-90.e9.
  10. Friis P, Forde R. Forhåndssamtaler = Advance care planning. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2017;137(6):462.
  11. Sudore RL, Lum HD, You JJ, Hanson LC, Meier DE, Pantilat SZ, et al. Defining advance care planning for adults: a consensus definition from a multidisciplinary Delphi Panel. J Pain Symptom Manage 2017;53(5):821-32.e1.
  12. Ferrell BR, Temel JS, Temin S, Smith TJ. Integration of palliative care Into standard oncology care: ASCO clinical practice guideline update summary. J Oncol Pract 2017;13(2):119-21.
  13. Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet. Samhandlingsreformen: rett behandling – på rett sted – til rett tid. St.meld. nr. 47 (2008-2009). Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/d4f0e16ad32e4bbd8d8ab5c21445a5dc/no/pdfs/stm200820090047000dddpdfs.pdf
  14. Gomes B, Calanzani N, Gysels M, Hall S, Higginson IJ. Heterogeneity and changes in preferences for dying at home: a systematic review. BMC Palliat Care 2013;12:7.
  15. Danielsen BV, Sand AM, Rosland JH, Førland O. Experiences and challenges of home care nurses and general practitioners in home-based palliative care – a qualitative study. BMC Palliat Care 2018;17(1):95.
  16. Kaasa S, Loge JH, Fayers P, Caraceni A, Strasser F, Hjermstad MJ, et al. Symptom assessment in palliative care: a need for international collaboration. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(23):3867-73.
  17. Stajduhar K, Funk L, Toye C, Grande G, Aoun S, Todd C. Part 1: Home-based family caregiving at the end of life: a comprehensive review of published quantitative research (1998-2008). Palliat Med 2010;24(6):573-93.
  18. Grande GE, Austin L, Ewing G, O'Leary N, Roberts C. Assessing the impact of a Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) intervention in palliative home care: a stepped wedge cluster trial. BMJ Support Palliat Care 2017;7(3):326-34.
  19. Kultur- og kirkedepartementet. Frivillighet for alle. St.meld. nr 39 (2006-2007). Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/Stmeld-nr-39-2007-/id477331/
  20. Levy MH. Doctor-patient communication: the lifeline to comprehensive cancer care. I: American Society of Clinical Oncology, Educational Book, 1998 (34th Annual Meeting)1998. s. 195-202.
  21. Fallowfield L, Jenkins V. Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care. Eur J Cancer 1999;35(11):1592-7.
  22. Kringlen E, Finset A, Kringlen E. Den kliniske samtalen : kommunikasjon og pasientbehandling. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget; 1999.
  23. Fallowfield L. Communication with the patient and family in palliative medicine. I: Hanks G, red. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. 4. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010. s. 333-41.
  24. Detmar SB, Muller MJ, Wever LD, Schornagel JH, Aaronson NK. The patient-physician relationship. Patient-physician communication during outpatient palliative treatment visits: an observational study. JAMA 2001;285(10):1351-7.
  25. Fallowfield L, Jenkins V. Communicating sad, bad, and difficult news in medicine. Lancet 2004;363(9405):312-9.
  26. Baile WF, Buckman R, Lenzi R, Glober G, Beale EA, Kudelka AP. SPIKES-A six-step protocol for delivering bad news: application to the patient with cancer. Oncologist 2000;5(4):302-11.
  27. Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Wolfe P, Emanuel LL. Talking with terminally ill patients and their caregivers about death, dying, and bereavement: is it stressful? Is it helpful? Arch Intern Med 2004;164(18):1999-2004.
  28. Lederberg M. The family of the cancer patient. I: Holland J, red. Psychooncology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998. s. 981-93.
  29. Kissane D. A challenge for palliative medicine: bereavement care. Euro J Palliat Care 2005;12(2S):19-23.
  30. Ringdal GI, Ringdal K, Jordhoy MS, Ahlner-Elmqvist M, Jannert M, Kaasa S. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in family members of cancer victims: results from a longitudinal intervention study in Norway and Sweden. Palliat Med 2004;18(2):108-20.
  31. Friis P, Forde R. Advance care planning discussions with geriatric patients. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2015;135(3):233-5.
  32. Helsedirektoratet. Beslutningsprosesser ved begrensning av livsforlengende behandling hos alvorlige syke og døende. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2009. IS-2091. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/veileder-for-beslutningsprosesser-ved-begrensning-av-livsforlengende-behandling
  33. NHS. End of life care [Nettside]. England: NHS [oppdatert 20. juni 2018; lest 4. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/end-of-life-care/
  34. Advance care plan: personal preferences and choises of end of life care. London: St. Christophers Hospice; 2010. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.stchristophers.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/STCH-Advance-Care-Plan-web-version-1112.pdf
  35. Thoresen L, Lillemoen L, Sævareid TJL, Gjerberg E, Førde R, Pedersen R. Forhåndssamtaler på sykehjem: felles planlegging for tiden framover og helsehjelp ved livets slutt for pasienter ved sykehjem. Oslo: Universitet i Oslo. Institutt for helse og samfunn; 2017. Veileder. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.med.uio.no/helsam/forskning/prosjekter/forberedende-samtaler-i-sykehjem/acp-veileder271117.pdf?utm_source=publikasjoner&utm_campaign=veileder-forhandssamtaler
  36. Dine ønsker for livets siste tid - forberedende samtaler [Fagprosedyre under publisering 2018]. Oslo: Oslo Universitetssykehus [oppdatert 2018; lest 20. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.helsebiblioteket.no/fagprosedyrer/pabegynte/livets-siste-tid-kartleggingsverktoy
  37. Lippert FK, Raffay V, Georgiou M, Steen PA, Bossaert L. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 10. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Resuscitation 2010;81(10):1445-51.
  38. Kjørstad OJ, Haugen DF. Hjarte-lunge-redning til kreftpasientar i palliativ fase. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2013;133(4):417-21.
  39. Stone CA, Lawlor PG, Kenny RA. How to identify patients with cancer at risk of falling: a review of the evidence. J Palliat Med 2011;14(2):221-30.
  40. Cohen SR, Leis A. What determines the quality of life of terminally ill cancer patients from their own perspective? J Palliat Care 2002;18(1):48-58.
  41. Kaasa T, Wessel J. The Edmonton Functional Assessment Tool: further development and validation for use in palliative care. J Palliat Care 2001;17(1):5-11.
  42. Frantzen T. Fysioterapi i palliativ fase. I: Nesvold IL, Frantzen T-L, Tagholdt KL, red. Fysioterapi til kreftpasienter. Oslo: Norsk Fysioterapeutforbund, faggruppen for onkologi og lymfologi; 2016. s. 64-72.
  43. Oldervoll L, Stene G. Fysisk aktivitet og trening. I: Kaasa S, Loge JH, Haugen DRF, red. Palliasjon: nordisk lærebok. 3. utg. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk; 2016. s. 244-52.
  44. Galvao DA, Newton RU. Review of exercise intervention studies in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(4):899-909.
  45. Oldervoll LM, Loge JH, Lydersen S, Paltiel H, Asp MB, Nygaard UV, et al. Physical exercise for cancer patients with advanced disease: a randomized controlled trial. Oncologist 2011;16(11):1649-57.
  46. Gulde I, Oldervoll LM, Martin C. Palliative cancer patients' experience of physical activity. J Palliat Care 2011;27(4):296-302.
  47. Dittus KL, Gramling RE, Ades PA. Exercise interventions for individuals with advanced cancer: A systematic review. Prev Med 2017;104:124-32.
  48. Sarhill N, Mahmoud F, Walsh D, Nelson KA, Komurcu S, Davis M, et al. Evaluation of nutritional status in advanced metastatic cancer. Support Care Cancer 2003;11(10):652-9.
  49. 49. Baracos VE. Cancer-associated cachexia and underlying biological mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr 2006;26:435-61.
  50. Bye A, Jordhoy MS, Skjegstad G, Ledsaak O, Iversen PO, Hjermstad MJ. Symptoms in advanced pancreatic cancer are of importance for energy intake. Support Care Cancer 2013;21(1):219-27.
  51. Fearon KC. Cancer cachexia: developing multimodal therapy for a multidimensional problem. Eur J Cancer 2008;44(8):1124-32.
  52. Arends J, Bachmann P, Baracos V, Barthelemy N, Bertz H, Bozzetti F, et al. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in cancer patients. Clin Nutr 2017;36(1):11-48.
  53. Cederholm T, Barazzoni R, Austin P, Ballmer P, Biolo G, Bischoff SC, et al. ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition. Clin Nutr 2017;36(1):49-64.
  54. Jeejeebhoy KN. Malnutrition, fatigue, frailty, vulnerability, sarcopenia and cachexia: overlap of clinical features. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15(3):213-9.
  55. Fearon K, Strasser F, Anker SD, Bosaeus I, Bruera E, Fainsinger RL, et al. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus. Lancet Oncol 2011;12(5):489-95.
  56. Fearon KCH, Glass DJ, Guttridge DC. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways. Cell Metab 2012;16(2):153-66.
  57. Solheim TS, Laird BJ. Evidence base for multimodal therapy in cachexia. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2012;6(4):424-31.
  58. Radbruch L, Elsner F, Trottenberg  P, Strasser F, Fearon K. Clinical practice guidelines on Cancer Cachexia in advanced cancer patients. Aachen: Department of Palliative Medicinen / European Palliative Care Research Collaborative; 2010.
  59. Arends J. Struggling with nutrition in patients with advanced cancer: nutrition and nourishment-focusing on metabolism and supportive care.  2018;29:ii27-ii34.
  60. Helsedirektoratet. Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for forebygging og behandling av underernæring. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2013. IS-1580. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/nasjonal-faglig-retningslinje-for-forebygging-og-behandling-av-underernering
  61. Stratton RJ, Hackston A, Longmore D, Dixon R, Price S, Stroud M, et al. Malnutrition in hospital outpatients and inpatients: prevalence, concurrent validity and ease of use of the 'malnutrition universal screening tool' ('MUST') for adults. Br J Nutr 2004;92(5):799-808.
  62. Kondrup J, Rasmussen HH, Hamberg OLE, Stanga Z. Nutritional risk screening (NRS 2002): a new method based on an analysis of controlled clinical trials. Clinical Nutrition 2003;22(3):321-36.
  63. Detsky AS, McLaughlin JR, Baker JP, Johnston N, Whittaker S, Mendelson RA, et al. What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status? JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987;11(1):8-13.
  64. Vigano AL, di Tomasso J, Kilgour RD, Trutschnigg B, Lucar E, Morais JA, et al. The abridged patient-generated subjective global assessment is a useful tool for early detection and characterization of cancer cachexia. J Acad Nutr Diet 2014;114(7):1088-98.
  65. Del Fabbro E, Hui D, Dalal S, Dev R, Nooruddin ZI, Bruera E. Clinical outcomes and contributors to weight loss in a cancer cachexia clinic. J Palliat Med 2011;14(9):1004-8.
  66. Reid J, McKenna HP, Fitzsimons D, McCance TV. An exploration of the experience of cancer cachexia: what patients and their families want from healthcare professionals. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2010;19(5):682-9.
  67. Ravasco P. Aspects of taste and compliance in patients with cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2005;9:S84-S91.
  68. Arends J, Bodoky G, Bozzetti F, Fearon K, Muscaritoli M, Selga G, et al. ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: Non-surgical oncology. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):245-59.
  69. Obling SR, Wilson BV, Pfeiffer P, Kjeldsen J. Home parenteral nutrition increases fat free mass in patients with incurable gastrointestinal cancer. Results of a randomized controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2017.
  70. Bozzetti F, Amadori D, Bruera E, Cozzaglio L, Corli O, Filiberti A, et al. Guidelines on artificial nutrition versus hydration in terminal cancer patients. European Association for Palliative Care. Nutrition 1996;12(3):163-7.
  71. Yavuzsen T, Davis MP, Walsh D, LeGrand S, Lagman R. Systematic review of the treatment of cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(33):8500-11.
  72. Ruiz Garcia V, Lopez-Briz E, Carbonell Sanchis R, Gonzalvez Perales JL, Bort-Marti S. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;(3):CD004310.
  73. Nordoy T, Thoresen L, Kvikstad A, Svensen R. Ernæring og væskebehandling til pasienter med ikke-kurabel kreftsykdom. Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2006;126(5):624-7.
  74. Holtan A, Aass N, Nordoy T, Haugen DF, Kaasa S, Mohr W, et al. Prevalence of pain in hospitalised cancer patients in Norway: a national survey. Palliat Med 2007;21(1):7-13.
  75. Temel JS, Abernethy AP, Currow DC, Friend J, Duus EM, Yan Y, et al. Anamorelin in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and cachexia (ROMANA 1 and ROMANA 2): results from two randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trials. Lancet Oncol 2016;17(4):519-31.
  76. Jones LW, Alfano CM. Exercise-oncology research: past, present, and future. Acta Oncol 2013;52(2):195-215.
  77. Segal R, Zwaal C, Green E, Tomasone JR, Loblaw A, Petrella T, et al. Exercise for people with cancer: a systematic review. Curr Oncol 2017;24(4):e290-e315.
  78. Oldervoll LM, Loge JH, Paltiel H, Asp MB, Vidvei U, Hjermstad MJ, et al. Are palliative cancer patients willing and able to participate in a physical exercise program? Palliat Support Care 2005;3(4):281-7.
  79. Fong DY, Ho JW, Hui BP, Lee AM, Macfarlane DJ, Leung SS, et al. Physical activity for cancer survivors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2012;344:e70.
  80. Dy SM, Apostol CC. Evidence-based approaches to other symptoms in advanced cancer. Cancer J 2010;16(5):507-13.
  81. Dev R, Dalal S, Bruera E. Is there a role for parenteral nutrition or hydration at the end of life? Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2012;6(3):365-70.
  82. Stensheim H, Hjermstad M, Loge JH. Ivaretakelse av pårørende. I: Kaasa S, Loge JH, Haugen DRF, red. Palliasjon: nordisk lærebok. 3. utg. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk; 2016. s. 274-85.
  83. Helsedirektoratet. Veileder om pårørende i helse- og omsorgstjenesten. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2018. IS-2587. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/parorendeveileder
  84. Lov om pasient- og brukerrettigheter (pasient- og brukerrettighetsloven). LOV-1999-07-02-63. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1999-07-02-63
  85. Lov om kommunale helse- og omsorgstjenester m.m. (helse- og omsorgstjenesteloven). LOV-2011-06-24-30. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2011-06-24-30
  86. Lov om helsepersonell m.v. (helsepersonelloven). LOV-1999-07-02-64. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1999-07-02-64
  87. Lov om spesialisthelsetjenesten m.m. (spesialisthelsetjenesteloven). LOV-1999-07-02-61. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-19990702-061.html
  88. Ferdige fagprosedyrer: barn og unge [Nettside]. Oslo: Helsebiblioteket.no [oppdatert 2018; lest 7. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.helsebiblioteket.no/fagprosedyrer/ferdige/?subject=243978
  89. McClement SE. Spiritual issues in palliative medicine. I: Cherny N, Fallon M, Kaasa S, Portenoy RK, Currow DC, red. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 5. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015. s. 1059-66.
  90. Saunders C. Watch with me: inspiration for a life in hospice care. Sheffield: Mortal Press; 2003.
  91. EAPC Task Force on Spiritual Care in Palliative Care [Nettdokument]. Belgia: European Association of Palliative Care [lest 4. april 2019]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.eapcnet.eu/eapc-groups/task-forces/spiritual-care
  92. Balboni MJ, Sullivan A, Amobi A, Phelps AC, Gorman DP, Zollfrank A, et al. Why is spiritual care infrequent at the end of life? Spiritual care perceptions among patients, nurses, and physicians and the role of training. J Clin Oncol 2013;31(4):461-7.
  93. Evangelista CB, Lopes ME, Costa SF, Batista PS, Batista JB, Oliveira AM. Palliative care and spirituality: an integrative literature review. Rev Bras Enferm 2016;69(3):591-601.
  94. Cobb M, Puchalski CM, Rumbold B. Oxford textbook of spirituality in healthcare. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.
  95. Anandarajah G, Hight E. Spirituality and medical practice: Using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment.  2001;63(1):81-9.
  96. Blaber M, Jone J, Willis D. Spiritual care: which is the best assessment tool for palliative settings? Int J Palliat Nurs 2015;21(9):430-8.
  97. Jackson KC. Kulturformuleringsintervjuet (CFI), DSM-5 : et klinisk verktøy i tverrkulturell kommunikasjon. Oslo: NAKMI, Nasjonal kompetanseenhet for minoritetshelse; 2015. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.fhi.no/publ/2015/kulturformuleringsintervjuet-cfi-dsm-5/
  98. Plesner IT, Døving CA. Livsfaseriter : religions- og livsynspolitiske utfordringer i Norge. Oslo: STL, Samarbeidsrådet for tros- og livssynsamfunn; [lest]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.trooglivssyn.no/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/STL-Livsfaseriter.pdf
  99. Rett til egen tros- og livssynsutøvelse. Oslo: Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet; 2009. Rundskriv I - 6/2009. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/hod/rundskriv/rundskriv-i---6-2009.pdf
  100. Spiritual support services. I: Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer: the manual. London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence; 2004. s. 95-104. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/csg4/resources/improving-supportive-and-palliative-care-for-adults-with-cancer-pdf-773375005
  101. Puchalski C, Ferrell B, Virani R, Otis-Green S, Baird P, Bull J, et al. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. J Palliat Med 2009;12(10):885-904.
  102. McClain CS, Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W. Effect of spiritual well-being on end-of-life despair in terminally-ill cancer patients. Lancet 2003;361(9369):1603-7.
  103. Wang YC, Lin CC. Spiritual well-being may reduce the negative impacts of cancer Symptoms on the quality of life and the desire for hastened death in terminally ill cancer patients. Cancer Nurs 2016;39(4):E43-50.
  104. Selman LE, Brighton LJ, Sinclair S, Karvinen I, Egan R, Speck P, et al. Patients' and caregivers' needs, experiences, preferences and research priorities in spiritual care: A focus group study across nine countries. Palliat Med 2018;32(1):216-30.
  105. Lacey J. Management of the actively dying patient. I: Cherny NI, red. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. 5. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015.
  106. Ellershaw J, Wilkinson S. Care of the dying: a pathway to excellence. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003.
  107. Treatment for the dying patient: The Liverpool Care pathway. BPJ 2011;(36):6-13.
  108. Seymour J, Clark D. The Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient: a critical analysis of its rise, demise and legacy in England. Wellcome Open Res 2018;3:15.
  109. Iversen GS. En plan for livets sluttfase [Nettdokument]. Oslo: Sykepleien [oppdatert 2. august 2018; lest 11. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://sykepleien.no/meninger/innspill/2016/09/en-plan-livets-sluttfase
  110. Retningslinjer for lindrende sedering i livets sluttfase. Oslo: Den norske legeforening; 2014. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.helsebiblioteket.no/anestesiologi/retningslinjer/retningslinjer-for-lindrende-sedering-i-livets-sluttfase
  111. Forskrift om individuell plan etter helselovgivningen og sosialtjenesteloven. FOR-2004-12-23-1837. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/LTI/forskrift/2004-12-23-1837
  112. Individuell plan 2010 – veileder til forskrift om individuell plan. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet; 2010. IS-1253. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/rehabilitering-habilitering-individuell-plan-og-koordinator/seksjon?Tittel=individuell-plan-og-koordinator-6935
  113. Harlo S, Kvikstad A. Økonomiske støtteordninger ved alvorlig sykdom og dødsfall. I: Kaasa S, Loge JH, Haugen DRF, red. Palliasjon: nordisk lærebok. 3. utg. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk; 2016. s. 172-88.
  114. Lov om folketrygd (folketrygdloven). LOV-1997-02-28-19. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/1997-02-28-19?q=LOV-1997-02-28-19
  115. Lov om arbeidsmiljø, arbeidstid og stillingsvern mv. (arbeidsmiljøloven). LOV-2005-06-17-62. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2005-06-17-62?q=LOV-2005-06-17-62
  116. Sykmelderveileder [nettdokument]. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet [oppdatert 2018; lest 18. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/retningslinjer/sykmelderveileder
  117. Forskrift om stønad til dekning av utgifter til viktige legemidler mv. (blåreseptforskriften). FOR-2007-06-28-814. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2007-06-28-814?q=FOR-2007-06-28-814
  118. Forskrift om helseforetaksfinansierte reseptlegemidler til bruk utenfor sykehus. FOR-2015-06-12-646. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2015-06-12-646?q=FOR-2015-06-12-646
  119. Forskrift om pasienters, ledsageres og pårørendes rett til dekning av utgifter ved reise til helsetjenester (pasientreiseforskriften). FOR-2015-06-25-793. Tilgjengelig fra: https://lovdata.no/dokument/SF/forskrift/2015-06-25-793?q=FOR-2015-06-25-793
  120. Bell R. Retningslinjer for smertelindring. Oslo: Den norske legeforening; [lest].
  121. Richmond C. Dame Cicely Saunders. BMJ 2005;331(7510):238-.
  122. Goudas LC, Bloch R, Gialeli-Goudas M, Lau J, Carr DB. The epidemiology of cancer pain. Cancer Invest 2005;23(2):182-90.
  123. Deandrea S, Montanari M, Moja L, Apolone G. Prevalence of undertreatment in cancer pain. A review of published literature. Ann Oncol 2008;19(12):1985-91.
  124. Caraceni A, Hanks G, Kaasa S, Bennett MI, Brunelli C, Cherny N, et al. Use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of cancer pain: evidence-based recommendations from the EAPC. Lancet Oncol 2012;13(2):e58-68.
  125. Kaasa S, Apolone G, Klepstad P, Loge JH, Hjermstad MJ, Corli O, et al. Expert conference on cancer pain assessment and classification--the need for international consensus: working proposals on international standards. BMJ Support Palliat Care 2011;1(3):281-7.
  126. Knudsen AK, Brunelli C, Klepstad P, Aass N, Apolone G, Corli O, et al. Which domains should be included in a cancer pain classification system? Analyses of longitudinal data. Pain 2012;153(3):696-703.
  127. Haugen DF, Hjermstad MJ, Hagen N, Caraceni A, Kaasa S. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: a systematic literature review. Pain 2010;149(3):476-82.
  128. Hagen NA, Stiles C, Nekolaichuk C, Biondo P, Carlson LE, Fisher K, et al. The Alberta Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool for cancer patients: a validation study using a delphi process and patient think-aloud interviews. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;35(2):136-52.
  129. Treede RD, Jensen TS, Campbell JN, Cruccu G, Dostrovsky JO, Griffin JW, et al. Neuropathic pain: redefinition and a grading system for clinical and research purposes. Neurology 2008;70(18):1630-5.
  130. Haanpaa M, Attal N, Backonja M, Baron R, Bennett M, Bouhassira D, et al. NeuPSIG guidelines on neuropathic pain assessment. Pain 2011;152(1):14-27.
  131. Laird BJ, Boyd AC, Colvin LA, Fallon MT. Are cancer pain and depression interdependent? A systematic review. Psychooncology 2009;18(5):459-64.
  132. Andersen BL, DeRubeis RJ, Berman BS, Gruman J, Champion VL, Massie MJ, et al. Screening, assessment, and care of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adults with cancer: an American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline adaptation. J Clin Oncol 2014;32(15):1605-19.
  133. Arcidiacono PG, Calori G, Carrara S, McNicol ED, Testoni PA. Celiac plexus block for pancreatic cancer pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(3):CD007519.
  134. Nabal M, Librada S, Redondo MJ, Pigni A, Brunelli C, Caraceni A. The role of paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in addition to WHO Step III opioids in the control of pain in advanced cancer. A systematic review of the literature. Palliat Med 2012;26(4):305-12.
  135. Caraceni A, Pigni A, Brunelli C. Is oral morphine still the first choice opioid for moderate to severe cancer pain? A systematic review within the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative guidelines project. Palliat Med 2011;25(5):402-9.
  136. King S, Forbes K, Hanks GW, Ferro CJ, Chambers EJ. A systematic review of the use of opioid medication for those with moderate to severe cancer pain and renal impairment: a European Palliative Care Research Collaborative opioid guidelines project. Palliat Med 2011;25(5):525-52.
  137. Hansen MS, Mathiesen O, Trautner S, Dahl JB. Intranasal fentanyl in the treatment of acute pain--a systematic review. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2012;56(4):407-19.
  138. Jandhyala R, Fullarton JR, Bennett MI. Efficacy of rapid-onset oral fentanyl formulations vs. oral morphine for cancer-related breakthrough pain: a meta-analysis of comparative trials. J Pain Symptom Manage 2013;46(4):573-80.
  139. Deandrea S, Corli O, Moschetti I, Apolone G. Managing severe cancer pain: the role of transdermal buprenorphine: a systematic review. Ther Clin Risk Manag 2009;5(5):707-18.
  140. Fredheim OM, Kaasa S, Dale O, Klepstad P, Landro NI, Borchgrevink PC. Opioid switching from oral slow release morphine to oral methadone may improve pain control in chronic non-malignant pain: a nine-month follow-up study. Palliat Med 2006;20(1):35-41.
  141. Moksnes K, Dale O, Rosland JH, Paulsen O, Klepstad P, Kaasa S. How to switch from morphine or oxycodone to methadone in cancer patients? a randomised clinical phase II trial. Eur J Cancer 2011;47(16):2463-70.
  142. Dean M. Opioids in renal failure and dialysis patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 2004;28(5):497-504.
  143. Bell RF, Eccleston C, Kalso EA. Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;6:CD003351.
  144. Fallon M, Giusti R, Aielli F, Hoskin P, Rolke R, Sharma M, et al. Management of cancer pain in adult patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol 2018;29(Supplement_4):iv166-iv91.
  145. Paulsen O, Klepstad P, Rosland JH, Aass N, Albert E, Fayers P, et al. Efficacy of methylprednisolone on pain, fatigue, and appetite loss in patients with advanced cancer using opioids: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol 2014;32(29):3221-8.
  146. Salt S, Mulvaney CA, Preston NJ. Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017;(5):CD004596.
  147. Loge J. Angst og depresjon. I: Kaasa S, red. Palliasjon: nordisk lærebok. 2. utg. Oslo: Gyldendal akademisk; 2008. s. 531-47.
  148. Mercadante S, Porzio G, Valle A, Fusco F, Aielli F, Costanzo V. Palliative sedation in patients with advanced cancer followed at home: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011;41(4):754-60.
  149. Ford JA, Jones R, Elders A, Mulatero C, Royle P, Sharma P, et al. Denosumab for treatment of bone metastases secondary to solid tumours: systematic review and network meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer 2013;49(2):416-30.
  150. Kvale PA, Simoff M, Prakash UB. Lung cancer. Palliative care. Chest 2003;123(1 Suppl):284s-311s.
  151. Ripamonti C. Management of dyspnea in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 1999;7(4):233-43.
  152. Allard P, Lamontagne C, Bernard P, Tremblay C. How effective are supplementary doses of opioids for dyspnea in terminally ill cancer patients? A randomized continuous sequential clinical trial. J Pain Symptom Manage 1999;17(4):256-65.
  153. Jennings AL, Davies AN, Higgins JP, Broadley K. Opioids for the palliation of breathlessness in terminal illness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD002066.
  154. Kloke M, Cherny N. Treatment of dyspnoea in advanced cancer patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol 2015;26 Suppl 5:v169-73.
  155. Booth S, Wade R, Johnson M, Kite S, Swannick M, Anderson H. The use of oxygen in the palliation of breathlessness. A report of the expert working group of the Scientific Committee of the Association of Palliative Medicine. Respir Med 2004;98(1):66-77.
  156. Cranston JM, Crockett A, Currow D. Oxygen therapy for dyspnoea in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(3):CD004769.
  157. Roberts CM. Short burst oxygen therapy for relief of breathlessness in COPD. Thorax 2004;59(8):638-40.
  158. Hately J, Laurence V, Scott A, Baker R, Thomas P. Breathlessness clinics within specialist palliative care settings can improve the quality of life and functional capacity of patients with lung cancer. Palliat Med 2003;17(5):410-7.
  159. Booth S, Wade R. Oxygen or air for palliation of breathlessness in advanced cancer. J R Soc Med 2003;96(5):215-8.
  160. Khan SY, O'Driscoll BR. Is nebulized saline a placebo in COPD? BMC Pulm Med 2004;4:9.
  161. Escalante CP, Martin CG, Elting LS, Price KJ, Manzullo EF, Weiser MA, et al. Identifying risk factors for imminent death in cancer patients with acute dyspnea. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;20(5):318-25.
  162. Teunissen SC, Wesker W, Kruitwagen C, de Haes HC, Voest EE, de Graeff A. Symptom prevalence in patients with incurable cancer: a systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007;34(1):94-104.
  163. Glare P, Pereira G, Kristjanson LJ, Stockler M, Tattersall M. Systematic review of the efficacy of antiemetics in the treatment of nausea in patients with far-advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer 2004;12(6):432-40.
  164. Glare P, Miller J, Nikolova T, Tickoo R. Treating nausea and vomiting in palliative care: a review. Clin Interv Aging 2011;6:243-59.
  165. Foubert J, Vaessen G. Nausea: the neglected symptom? Eur J Oncol Nurs 2005;9(1):21-32.
  166. Haughney A. Nausea & vomiting in end-stage cancer. Am J Nurs 2004;104(11):40-8; quiz 9.
  167. Stephenson J, Davies A. An assessment of aetiology-based guidelines for the management of nausea and vomiting in patients with advanced cancer. Support Care Cancer 2006;14(4):348-53.
  168. Ang SK, Shoemaker LK, Davis MP. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer. Am J Hosp Palliat Med 2010;27(3):219-25.
  169. Bentley A, Boyd K. Use of clinical pictures in the management of nausea and vomiting: a prospective audit. Palliat Med 2001;15(3):247-53.
  170. Lichter I. Which antiemetic? J Palliat Care 1993;9(1):42-50.
  171. Wood GJ, Shega JW, Lynch B, Von Roenn JH. Management of intractable nausea and vomiting in patients at the end of life: "I was feeling nauseous all of the time . . . nothing was working". JAMA 2007;298(10):1196-207.
  172. Laugsand EA, Fladvad T, Skorpen F, Maltoni M, Kaasa S, Fayers P, et al. Clinical and genetic factors associated with nausea and vomiting in cancer patients receiving opioids. Eur J Cancer 2011;47(11):1682-91.
  173. Saxby C, Ackroyd R, Callin S, Mayland C, Kite S. How should we measure emesis in palliative care? Palliat Med 2007;21(5):369-83.
  174. Sigurdardottir KR, Kaasa S, Rosland JH, Bausewein C, Radbruch L, Haugen DF. The European Association for Palliative Care basic dataset to describe a palliative care cancer population: results from an international Delphi process. Palliat Med 2014;28(6):463-73.
  175. Harris DG. Nausea and vomiting in advanced cancer. Br Med Bull 2010;96:175-85.
  176. Davis MP, Hallerberg G. A systematic review of the treatment of nausea and/or vomiting in cancer unrelated to chemotherapy or radiation. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39(4):756-67.
  177. Bruera E, Seifert L, Watanabe S, Babul N, Darke A, Harsanyi Z, et al. Chronic nausea in advanced cancer patients: a retrospective assessment of a metoclopramide-based antiemetic regimen. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996;11(3):147-53.
  178. Glare PA, Dunwoodie D, Clark K, Ward A, Yates P, Ryan S, et al. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in terminally ill cancer patients. Drugs 2008;68(18):2575-90.
  179. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Support Care Cancer 2009;17(4):333-7.
  180. Cohen AJ, Menter A, Hale L. Acupuncture: role in comprehensive cancer care--a primer for the oncologist and review of the literature. Integr Cancer Ther 2005;4(2):131-43.
  181. Standish LJ, Kozak L, Congdon S. Acupuncture is underutilized in hospice and palliative medicine. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2008;25(4):298-308.
  182. Brown S, North D, Marvel MK, Fons R. Acupressure wrist bands to relieve nausea and vomiting in hospice patients: do they work? Am J Hosp Palliat Care 1992;9(4):26-9.
  183. Larkin PJ, Sykes NP, Centeno C, Ellershaw JE, Elsner F, Eugene B, et al. The management of constipation in palliative care: clinical practice recommendations. Palliat Med 2008;22(7):796-807.
  184. De Graeff A, Krol RJA. Constipation: Nation-wide guideline. Version 2.0. Nederland: Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland; [lest 3. januar 2019]. Tilgjengelig fra: http://oncoline.nl/richtlijn/item/pagina.php?richtlijn_id=694&unique=04cd813c4e3401baa2d352000459b710&noframes=true
  185. Ahmedzai SH, Boland J. Constipation in people prescribed opioids. BMJ Clin Evid 2010;2010.
  186. Locke GR, 3rd, Pemberton JH, Phillips SF. American Gastroenterological Association Medical Position Statement: guidelines on constipation. Gastroenterology 2000;119(6):1761-6.
  187. Mancini I, Bruera E. Constipation in advanced cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 1998;6(4):356-64.
  188. McMillan SC. Assessing and managing opiate-induced constipation in adults with cancer. Cancer Control 2004;11(3 Suppl):3-9.
  189. Miles CL, Fellowes D, Goodman ML, Wilkinson S. Laxatives for the management of constipation in palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(4):CD003448.
  190. Smith S. Evidence-based management of constipation in the oncology patient. Eur J Oncol Nurs 2001;5(1):18-25.
  191. Woolery M, Bisanz A, Lyons HF, Gaido L, Yenulevich M, Fulton S, et al. Putting evidence into practice: evidence-based interventions for the prevention and management of constipation in patients with cancer. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2008;12(2):317-37.
  192. Clark K, Currow DC. Assessing constipation in palliative care within a gastroenterology framework. Palliat Med 2012;26(6):834-41.
  193. Follwell M, Burman D, Le LW, Wakimoto K, Seccareccia D, Bryson J, et al. Phase II study of an outpatient palliative care intervention in patients with metastatic cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27(2):206-13.
  194. Librach SL, Bouvette M, De Angelis C, Farley J, Oneschuk D, Pereira JL, et al. Consensus recommendations for the management of constipation in patients with advanced, progressive illness. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;40(5):761-73.
  195. Clark K, Lam LT, Agar M, Chye R, Currow DC. The impact of opioids, anticholinergic medications and disease progression on the prescription of laxatives in hospitalized palliative care patients: a retrospective analysis. Palliat Med 2010;24(4):410-8.
  196. Laksantia. I: Norsk legemiddelhåndbok. Oslo: Foreningen for utgivelse av Norsk legemiddelhåndbok; 2016. Tilgjengelig fra: http://legemiddelhandboka.no/Legemidler/72059
  197. Tamayo AC, Diaz-Zuluaga PA. Management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2004;12(9):613-8.
  198. Freedman MD, Schwartz HJ, Roby R, Fleisher S. Tolerance and efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution versus lactulose in relieving opiate induced constipation: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharmacol 1997;37(10):904-7.
  199. Wirz S, Nadstawek J, Elsen C, Junker U, Wartenberg HC. Laxative management in ambulatory cancer patients on opioid therapy: a prospective, open-label investigation of polyethylene glycol, sodium picosulphate and lactulose. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2012;21(1):131-40.
  200. Agra Y, Sacristan A, Gonzalez M, Ferrari M, Portugues A, Calvo MJ. Efficacy of senna versus lactulose in terminal cancer patients treated with opioids. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998;15(1):1-7.
  201. Droney J, Ross J, Gretton S, Welsh K, Sato H, Riley J. Constipation in cancer patients on morphine. Support Care Cancer 2008;16(5):453-9.
  202. Clark AJ, Ahmedzai SH, Allan LG, Camacho F, Horbay GL, Richarz U, et al. Efficacy and safety of transdermal fentanyl and sustained-release oral morphine in patients with cancer and chronic non-cancer pain. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20(9):1419-28.
  203. Radbruch L, Sabatowski R, Loick G, Kulbe C, Kasper M, Grond S, et al. Constipation and the use of laxatives: a comparison between transdermal fentanyl and oral morphine. Palliat Med 2000;14(2):111-9.
  204. Mendoza J, Legido J, Rubio S, Gisbert JP. Systematic review: the adverse effects of sodium phosphate enema. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007;26(1):9-20.
  205. Candy B, Jones L, Goodman ML, Drake R, Tookman A. Laxatives or methylnaltrexone for the management of constipation in palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(1):CD003448.
  206. Meissner W, Leyendecker P, Mueller-Lissner S, Nadstawek J, Hopp M, Ruckes C, et al. A randomised controlled trial with prolonged-release oral oxycodone and naloxone to prevent and reverse opioid-induced constipation. Eur J Pain 2009;13(1):56-64.
  207. Lowenstein O, Leyendecker P, Hopp M, Schutter U, Rogers PD, Uhl R, et al. Combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone improves bowel function in patients receiving opioids for moderate-to-severe non-malignant chronic pain: a randomised controlled trial. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009;10(4):531-43.
  208. Mancini IL, Hanson J, Neumann CM, Bruera ED. Opioid type and other clinical predictors of laxative dose in advanced cancer patients: a retrospective study. J Palliat Med 2000;3(1):49-56.
  209. Larkin PJ, Cherny NI, La Carpia D, Guglielmo M, Ostgathe C, Scotté F, et al. Diagnosis, assessment and management of constipation in advanced cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol 2018;29(Supplement_4):iv111-iv25.
  210. Ramesh PR, Kumar KS, Rajagopal MR, Balachandran P, Warrier PK. Managing morphine-induced constipation: a controlled comparison of an Ayurvedic formulation and senna. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998;16(4):240-4.
  211. Shin ES, Seo KH, Lee SH, Jang JE, Jung YM, Kim MJ, et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;(6):CD009873.
  212. Jeurnink SM, Steyerberg EW, Hof G, van Eijck CH, Kuipers EJ, Siersema PD. Gastrojejunostomy versus stent placement in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a comparison in 95 patients. J Surg Oncol 2007;96(5):389-96.
  213. Campagnutta E, Cannizzaro R. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in palliative treatment of non-operable intestinal obstruction due to gynecologic cancer: a review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2000;21(4):397-402.
  214. Abraham NS, Barkun JS, Barkun AN. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction: a prospective trial examining impact on quality of life. Gastrointest Endosc 2002;56(6):835-41.
  215. Gouma DJ, Busch OR, Van Gulik TM. Pancreatic carcinoma: palliative surgical and endoscopic treatment. HPB (Oxford) 2006;8(5):369-76.
  216. Singhal D, van Gulik TM, Gouma DJ. Palliative management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Surg Oncol 2005;14(2):59-74.
  217. Szklaruk J, Tamm E, Charnsangavej C. Preoperative imaging of biliary tract cancers. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2002;11(4):865-76.
  218. Espat NJ, Brennan MF, Conlon KC. Patients with laparoscopically staged unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not require subsequent surgical biliary or gastric bypass. J Am Coll Surg 1999;188(6):649-55; discussion 55-7.
  219. Artifon EL, Sakai P, Cunha JE, Dupont A, Filho FM, Hondo FY, et al. Surgery or endoscopy for palliation of biliary obstruction due to metastatic pancreatic cancer. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101(9):2031-7.
  220. Moss AC, Morris E, Mac Mathuna P. Palliative biliary stents for obstructing pancreatic carcinoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(1):CD004200.
  221. Prat F, Chapat O, Ducot B, Ponchon T, Pelletier G, Fritsch J, et al. A randomized trial of endoscopic drainage methods for inoperable malignant strictures of the common bile duct. Gastrointest Endosc 1998;47(1):1-7.
  222. van Delden OM, Lameris JS. Percutaneous drainage and stenting for palliation of malignant bile duct obstruction. Eur Radiol 2008;18(3):448-56.
  223. Witzigmann H, Berr F, Ringel U, Caca K, Uhlmann D, Schoppmeyer K, et al. Surgical and palliative management and outcome in 184 patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma: palliative photodynamic therapy plus stenting is comparable to r1/r2 resection. Ann Surg 2006;244(2):230-9.
  224. Rauws EA. Photodynamic therapy and Klatskin tumour: an overview. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 2006;(243):135-8.
  225. Müller D, Wiedmann M, Kluge R, Berr F, Mössner J, Sabri O, et al. Ist die 18F-FDG-PET zum Monitoring der palliativen photodynamischen Therapie von nichtresektablen Klatskin-Tumoren geeignet? Z Gastroenterol 2005;43(5):439-43.
  226. Ortner ME, Caca K, Berr F, Liebetruth J, Mansmann U, Huster D, et al. Successful photodynamic therapy for nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized prospective study. Gastroenterology 2003;125(5):1355-63.
  227. Connor S, Barron E, Redhead DN, Ireland H, Madhavan KK, Parks RW, et al. Palliation for suspected unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 2007;33(3):341-5.
  228. Traynor O, Castaing D, Bismuth H. Left intrahepatic cholangio-enteric anastomosis (round ligament approach): an effective palliative treatment for hilar cancers. Br J Surg 1987;74(10):952-4.
  229. Ripamonti C. Management of bowel obstruction in advanced cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 1994;6(4):351-7.
  230. Hodel J, Zins M, Desmottes L, Boulay-Coletta I, Julles MC, Nakache JP, et al. Location of the transition zone in CT of small-bowel obstruction: added value of multiplanar reformations. Abdom Imaging 2009;34(1):35-41.
  231. Sebastian S, Johnston S, Geoghegan T, Torreggiani W, Buckley M. Pooled analysis of the efficacy and safety of self-expanding metal stenting in malignant colorectal obstruction. Am J Gastroenterol 2004;99(10):2051-7.
  232. Larssen L, Medhus AW, Hjermstad MJ, Korner H, Glomsaker T, Soberg T, et al. Patient-reported outcomes in palliative gastrointestinal stenting: a Norwegian multicenter study. Surg Endosc 2011;25(10):3162-9.
  233. Larssen L, Medhus AW, Körner H, Glomsaker T, Søberg T, Gleditsch D, et al. Long-term outcome of palliative treatment with self-expanding metal stents for malignant obstructions of the GI tract. Scand J Gastroenterol 2012;47(12):1505-14.
  234. Meyer L, Pothuri B. Decompressive percutaneous gastrostomy tube use in gynecologic malignancies. Curr Treat Options Oncol 2006;7(2):111-20.
  235. Pothuri B, Montemarano M, Gerardi M, Shike M, Ben-Porat L, Sabbatini P, et al. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in patients with malignant bowel obstruction due to ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2005;96(2):330-4.
  236. Fayers PM, Hjermstad MJ, Ranhoff AH, Kaasa S, Skogstad L, Klepstad P, et al. Which mini-mental state exam items can be used to screen for delirium and cognitive impairment? J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;30(1):41-50.
  237. Bush SH, Lawlor PG, Ryan K, Centeno C, Lucchesi M, Kanji S, et al. Delirium in adult cancer patients: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. Ann Oncol 2018;29(Supplement_4):iv143-iv65.
  238. Ropper AE, Ropper AH. Acute spinal cord compression. N Engl J Med 2017;376(14):1358-69.
  239. Metastatic spinal cord compression in adults: risk assessment, diagnosis and management. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence 2008. Clinical guideline CG75. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg75
  240. Metastatic spinal cord compression in adults. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2014. Quality standard QS56. Tilgjengelig fra: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs56
  241. George R, Jeba J, Ramkumar G, Chacko AG, Tharyan P. Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(9):CD006716.
  242. Malign medullakompresjon (MMK) - Standardisert pasientforløp. I: eHåndboken for Oslo universitetssykehus [nettdokument]. Oslo: Oslo universitetssykehus. Avd. for kreftbehandling [oppdatert 2018; lest 18. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: http://ehandboken.ous-hf.no/document/128350
  243. Standardisert pasientforløp: Malign medullakompresjon. Trondheim: St. Olavs hospital. Kreftklinikken; [lest]. Tilgjengelig fra: http://data.stolav.no/eqspublic/pasientforlop/docs/doc_28412/index.html
  244. Mak KS, Lee LK, Mak RH, Wang S, Pile-Spellman J, Abrahm JL, et al. Incidence and treatment patterns in hospitalizations for malignant spinal cord compression in the United States, 1998-2006. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2011;80(3):824-31.
  245. Levack P, Graham J, Collie D, Grant R, Kidd J, Kunkler I, et al. Don't wait for a sensory level--listen to the symptoms: a prospective audit of the delays in diagnosis of malignant cord compression. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2002;14(6):472-80.
  246. Loblaw DA, Perry J, Chambers A, Laperriere NJ. Systematic review of the diagnosis and management of malignant extradural spinal cord compression: the Cancer Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative's Neuro-Oncology Disease Site Group. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(9):2028-37.
  247. Loughrey GJ, Collins CD, Todd SM, Brown NM, Johnson RJ. Magnetic resonance imaging in the management of suspected spinal canal disease in patients with known malignancy. Clin Radiol 2000;55(11):849-55.
  248. Cook AM, Lau TN, Tomlinson MJ, Vaidya M, Wakeley CJ, Goddard P. Magnetic resonance imaging of the whole spine in suspected malignant spinal cord compression: impact on management. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 1998;10(1):39-43.
  249. McCurdy MT, Shanholtz CB. Oncologic emergencies. Crit Care Med 2012;40(7):2212-22.
  250. Kumar N, Malhotra R, Maharajan K, Zaw AS, Wu PH, Makandura MC, et al. Metastatic spine tumor surgery: A comparative study of minimally invasive approach using percutaneous pedicle screws fixation versus open approach. Clin Spine Surg 2017;30(8):E1015-e21.
  251. Rades D, Segedin B, Conde-Moreno A, Gómez R, Perpar A, Metz M, et al. Radiotherapy with 4 Gy x 5 versus 3 Gy x 10 for metastatic epidural spinal cord compression: Final results of the SCORE-2 trial (ARO 2009/01). J Clin Oncol 2016;34(6):597-602.
  252. Lutz S, Balboni T, Jones J, Lo S, Petit J, Rich SE, et al. Palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases: update of an ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline. Pract Radiat Oncol 2017;7(1):4-12.
  253. Braam P, Lambin P, Bussink J. Stereotactic versus conventional radiotherapy for pain reduction and quality of life in spinal metastases: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2016;17:61.
  254. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, Payne R, Saris S, Kryscio RJ, et al. Direct decompressive surgical resection in the treatment of spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 2005;366(9486):643-8.
  255. George R, Jeba J, Ramkumar G, Chacko AG, Leng M, Tharyan P. Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(4):CD006716.
  256. Lee SH, Grant R, Kennedy C, Kilbride L. Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;(9):CD007609.
  257. Paniagua-Collado M, Cauli O. Non-pharmacological interventions in patients with spinal cord compression: a systematic review. J Neurooncol 2018;136(3):423-34.
  258. Kaasa S, Loge JH, Aapro M, Albreht T, Anderson R, Bruera E, et al. Integration of oncology and palliative care: a Lancet Oncology Commission. Lancet Oncol 2018;19(11):e588-e653.
  259. Sze WM, Shelley M, Held I, Mason M. Palliation of metastatic bone pain: single fraction versus multifraction radiotherapy - a systematic review of the randomised trials. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(2):CD004721.
  260. Doyle D, Hanks GWC. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. 4. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.
  261. Wang C, Shen Y, Zhu S. Distribution features of skeletal metastases: a comparative study between pulmonary and prostate cancers. PLoS One 2015;10(11):e0143437.
  262. Kakhki VR, Anvari K, Sadeghi R, Mahmoudian AS, Torabian-Kakhki M. Pattern and distribution of bone metastases in common malignant tumors. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur 2013;16(2):66-9.
  263. Smith HS, Barkin RL. Painful boney metastases. Am J Ther 2014;21(2):106-30.
  264. DeVita VT, Rosenberg SA, Hellman S. Cancer : principles & practice of oncology. 7. utg. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
  265. Roodman GD. Mechanisms of bone metastasis. N Engl J Med 2004;350(16):1655-64.
  266. Edelstyn GA, Gillespie PJ, Grebbell FS. The radiological demonstration of osseous metastases. Experimental observations. Clin Radiol 1967;18(2):158-62.
  267. Eustace S, Tello R, DeCarvalho V, Carey J, Wroblicka JT, Melhem ER, et al. A comparison of whole-body turboSTIR MR imaging and planar 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy in the examination of patients with suspected skeletal metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;169(6):1655-61.
  268. Galasko CS. The detection of skeletal metastases from mammary cancer by gamma camera scintigraphy. Br J Surg 1969;56(10):757-64.
  269. Husband DJ, Grant KA, Romaniuk CS. MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of suspected malignant spinal cord compression. Br J Radiol 2001;74(877):15-23.
  270. Langer A. A systematic review of PET and PET/CT in oncology: a way to personalize cancer treatment in a cost-effective manner? BMC Health Serv Res 2010;10:283.
  271. Chow E, Harris K, Fan G, Tsao M, Sze WM. Palliative radiotherapy trials for bone metastases: a systematic review. J Clin Oncol 2007;25(11):1423-36.
  272. Sze WM, Shelley MD, Held I, Wilt TJ, Mason MD. Palliation of metastatic bone pain: single fraction versus multifraction radiotherapy--a systematic review of randomised trials. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2003;15(6):345-52.
  273. Wu JS, Wong R, Johnston M, Bezjak A, Whelan T. Meta-analysis of dose-fractionation radiotherapy trials for the palliation of painful bone metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55(3):594-605.
  274. Fairchild A, Barnes E, Ghosh S, Ben-Josef E, Roos D, Hartsell W, et al. International patterns of practice in palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases: evidence-based practice? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;75(5):1501-10.
  275. Laugsand TS, Kaasa S, Romundstad P, Johannesen TB, Lund JA. Radiotherapy for bone metastases: practice in Norway 1997-2007. A national registry-based study. Acta Oncol 2013;52(6):1129-36.
  276. Rich SE, Chow R, Raman S, Liang Zeng K, Lutz S, Lam H, et al. Update of the systematic review of palliative radiation therapy fractionation for bone metastases. Radiother Oncol 2018;126(3):547-57.
  277. Chow R, Hoskin P, Hollenberg D, Lam M, Dennis K, Lutz S, et al. Efficacy of single fraction conventional radiation therapy for painful uncomplicated bone metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Palliat Med 2017;6(2):125-42.
  278. Chow E, Hoskin P, Mitera G, Zeng L, Lutz S, Roos D, et al. Update of the international consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;82(5):1730-7.
  279. Chiu N, Chiu L, Popovic M, DeAngelis C, Lutz S, Zhang N, et al. Re-irradiation for painful bone metastases: evidence-based approach. Ann Palliat Med 2015;4(4):214-9.
  280. Chow E, van der Linden YM, Roos D, Hartsell WF, Hoskin P, Wu JS, et al. Single versus multiple fractions of repeat radiation for painful bone metastases: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol 2014;15(2):164-71.
  281. Guckenberger M, Mantel F, Gerszten PC, Flickinger JC, Sahgal A, Letourneau D, et al. Safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy as primary treatment for vertebral metastases: a multi-institutional analysis. Radiat Oncol 2014;9:226.
  282. Hashmi A, Guckenberger M, Kersh R, Gerszten PC, Mantel F, Grills IS, et al. Re-irradiation stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastases: a multi-institutional outcome analysis. J Neurosurg Spine 2016;25(5):646-53.
  283. Townsend PW, Rosenthal HG, Smalley SR, Cozad SC, Hassanein RE. Impact of postoperative radiation therapy and other perioperative factors on outcome after orthopedic stabilization of impending or pathologic fractures due to metastatic disease. J Clin Oncol 1994;12(11):2345-50.
  284. Townsend PW, Smalley SR, Cozad SC, Rosenthal HG, Hassanein RE. Role of postoperative radiation therapy after stabilization of fractures caused by metastatic disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;31(1):43-9.
  285. Johnstone C, Lutz ST. External beam radiotherapy and bone metastases. Ann Palliat Med 2014;3(2):114-22.
  286. Harada H, Katagiri H, Kamata M, Yoshioka Y, Asakura H, Hashimoto T, et al. Radiological response and clinical outcome in patients with femoral bone metastases after radiotherapy. J Radiat Res 2010;51(2):131-6.
  287. Cheng DS, Seitz CB, Eyre HJ. Nonoperative management of femoral, humeral, and acetabular metastases in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer 1980;45(7):1533-7.
  288. Cherny NI. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. 5. utg. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015.
  289. Metoder og verktøy [Nettdokument]. Oslo: Helsedirektoratet [lest 20. desember 2018]. Tilgjengelig fra: https://helsedirektoratet.no/metoder-og-verktoy